Montessori Dusting PresentationAREA Practical Life Care of the Environment AGE 2 ½ to 6 years MATERIALS Feather duster Pastry brush Yellow duster cloth Tray Apron DIRECT AIM To dust the environment. INDIRECT AIM Gross motor skills, fine motor skills, working from left to right, developing concentration, to care for the environment, strengthen muscles in the arms and to develop a spirit of helpfulness and responsibility. PRESENTATION

Montessori Polishing a mirror PresentationAGE: 3 years AREA: Practical life Care of the environment MATERIALS: Small hand held mirror Ear bud Polishing cloth Table mat Dropper Bottle containing window cleaner DIRECT AIM: Polishing a mirror INDIRECT AIMS: Fine motor control Concentration Sequencing Strengthening the fingers and hands Crossing the midline Bilaterality CONTROL OF ERROR: If the mirror does not shine PRESENTATION:

Montessori Polishing brass/silver PresentationAge: 3 years Area: Care of the environment Materials: Brass object Ear bud Polishing cloth Table mat Bottle containing brasso/silvo Direct aim: Polishing a brass object Indirect Aims: Fine motor control Concentration Sequencing Strengthening the fingers and hands Crossing the midline Bilaterality Control of error: If the brass object does not shine If there is no black tarnish on the cloth Presentation:

Montessori Mopping a floor PresentationAREA Practical Life Care of the Environment AGE 3 ½ to 6 years MATERIALS Mop Small plastic bucket Drying cloth Liquid soap jug DIRECT AIM To mop up a spill INDIRECT AIM Gross motor skills, developing concentration, to care for the environment, strengthen muscles in the arms, sequencing, bilaterality, crossing the midline PRESENTATION 1. Invite the child to begin the Work Cycle. 2. Unpack the materials onto the floor mat in order of use, that is: the jug, bucket, green liquid, mop, drying cloth. 3. Invite the child to collect water in the jug.’ 4. Pour most of the water into the bucket, holding the jug with your right hand and supporting the spout with your left hand. Leave a little water in the jug for the cleaning up process. 5. Using your left hand, pick up the bottle and in quarter turns, unscrew the lid. 6. Pour a few drops of liquid soap into the water. 7. Dip your right hand into the water and give the water a swirl so that the water and liquid soap mix slightly. 8. Dry your hands on the cloth. 9. Pick up the mop holding it at the top with both hands and dip the mop into the water. 10. Squeeze excess water out of the mop by turning the hair of the mop in one direction. 11. Using both hands show the child how to mop the floor pulling the mop back and forth. The right hand should be positioned half way down the handle and the left hand is positioned at the top of the handle. 12. When the mop seems saturated dip the mop into the water again, squeeze out the excess water, and repeat the mopping process. 13. Once the floor seems clean invite the child to pour the dirty water into the flowers. 14. Pour some of the remaining water from the jug into the bucket and rinse the bucket. Throw this water away too. 15. Dry the bucket with the drying cloth. 16. Show the child where to place the mop in the sun to dry. 17. Return the bucket and materials to their place on the shelf.

Montessori Spooning beans PresentationAREA Practical Life Elementary Movements AGE 21/2 to 3 years MATERIALS Two identical bowls, beans, spoon, mat and tray
picture of the materials DIRECT AIM Spooning beans from the left bowl to the right bowl. INDIRECT AIM Refining fine motor skills, working from left to right, developing concentration, and developing pincer grip, eye convergence, eye hand coordination, patience.. PRESENTATION 1. Invite the child to begin Work Cycle. 2. The child places the tray on the mat in front of the adult. 3. The adult pushes the tray to the top edge of the mat. 4. Remove the bowls one by one from the tray to the mat with the dominant hand in fluid movements ensuring the full bowl is on the left. Remove the spoon from the tray and position in front of the bowls. 5. Grasp spoon in pincer grip with thumb on top and fingers wrapped underneath. 6. Position spoon over the left bowl and dip tip of spoon into the bowl and scoop up some beans. 7. Move hand over to the right hand bowl lowering head of spoon. Gently release beans into the empty bowl. 8. Repeat procedure until only a few beans are left in the bowl.

Montessori Pegging PresentationAREA Practical Life Elementary Movements AGE 3 – 3 1/2 years MATERIALS Pegs with loose springs, 1 basket container.
picture of the materials DIRECT AIM To peg and unpeg with the plastic pegs INDIRECT AIM Eye hand coordination, develop pincer grip, patience and concentration, dexterity, strengthen fingers and arm PRESENTATION1. Invite the child to begin Work Cycle. 2. The child places the tray on the mat in front of the adult. 3. The adult pushes the tray to the top edge of the mat. 4. Remove the basket with your dominant hand. Remove the pegs using the pincer grip, one by one, from the side of the basket. Show the child what the opened peg mouth looks like. 5. Position the pegs on the mat in front of the basket. Place them down from left to right in a horizontal line. Arrange in colour sequence if applicable. 6. Tell the child you will now show her how to replace the pegs onto the side of the basket. 7. Pick up the peg on the left hand side of the mat. Apply pressure and watch the mouth of the peg open 8. Deliberately place the peg over the edge of the basket, release your grip on the peg and watch it attach to the side of the basket. 
Montessori Setting Table PresentationAREA Practical Life Care of the Environment AGE 3 ½ to 6 years MATERIALS Tray Control chart Knife, fork, cup, saucer, napkin, salt and pepper set, side plate. DIRECT AIM To set the table for a meal. INDIRECT AIM Gross motor skills, developing concentration, to care for the environment, strengthen muscles in the arms, sequencing, bilaterality, crossing the midline, spatial orientation, birds eye view perspective. PRESENTATION 1. Invite the child to begin the Work Cycle. 2. Ask the child to bring the work mat to the work area.place the work mat just above the actual work area. 3. Fetch the work on the tray. Place the tray on the seat of the chair and unpack the materials onto the plastic mat which is situated just above the work area. 4. Unpack the control chart and lay it on the table. 5. One by one, in no particular order, match the utensils onto the control chart. 6. Stand back and admire the set table. 7. Show the child how to pack away by removing the utensils from the tray one by one and placing them onto the mat. 8. Lift the control chart and place this back into the tray. 9. Place all the utensils back into the tray onto the control chart. 10. Place the tray onto the table and invite the child to have a turn.

Montessori Scrubbing table PresentationAREA Practical Life Care of the Environment AGE 3 to 5 years MATERIALS Plastic bucket, soap, soap dish, apron, scrubbing brush, sponge, bowl, plastic mat, jug, drying cloth. The materials are all kept inside the bucket. DIRECT AIM To scrub the table. INDIRECT AIM Gross motor skills, working from left to right, developing concentration, to care for the environment, strengthen muscles in the arms and sequencing. PRESENTATION 1. Invite the child to begin the Work Cycle. 2. Lay out the plastic mat beside the table and lay out the materials in order of use: 3. Jug, bowl, scrubbing brush, soap in soap dish, sponge, cloth for drying table and hands. 4. Ask the child to collect some water in the jug up to the water mark only. 5. Show the child how to pour this into the bowl leaving a little in the jug. 6. Pick up the scrubbing brush in your right hand and dip this into the water. 7. Pick the soap up in your left hand. 8. Apply some soap to the brush by rotating the brush on the soap in little circles. 9. Return the soap to the dish. 10. Begin to scrub the table in little circular motions beginning at the top left hand side of the table and working your way down the table in vertical lines. That is, working from left to right. 11. Ensure that a good lather is created. If not, dip the brush into the water again and resoap the brush. 12. Dip the brush into the water again to rinse it. 13. Give the brush a little shake to remove excess water. 14. Pick the sponge up in your right hand and begin to wipe the table. Wipe from top to bottom in straight lines again, working your way across the table. 15. Dip the sponge in the water and rinse it squeezing out any excess water 16. Check the clean strip. 17. Show the child how to clear up by pouring the dirty water into the bucket. 18. Pour the remaining water in the jug, into the bowl. 19. Swirl the water in the bowl and pour this into the bucket too. 20. Dry the dish and the jug with the drying cloth. 21. Ask the child to watch where you throw the dirty water. Toss this out on the flowers or on the lawn. 22. Go back to the work area and dry the bucket. 23. Exchange the wet cloth for a dry cloth. 24. Replace all the contents in the bucket and return this to its place in the environment. Invite the child to have a turn.

Montessori Washing a window PresentationAREA Practical Life Elementary Movements AGE 4 6 years MATERIALS A window in the classroom that is at the correct height for the child ,plastic mat, bucket, jug, liquid cleaner, squeegee, drying cloth. PRESENTATION1. Invite the child to begin the Work Cycle. 2. Show the child where the equipment is kept. 3. Ask the child to bring the equipment over to the window. 4. Unpack the equipment on the floor mat in order of use. 5. Ask the child to collect water in the jug up to the water line. 6. Pour this water into the bucket leaving a little in the jug for cleaning up with. 7. Pick up the bottle of cleaner. Unscrew the bottle and drop a few drops of liquid into the water. 8. Using your dominant hand, place your hand in the bowl and swirl it around to mix in the liquid. 9. Dry your hand. 10. Pick the squeegee up in your dominant hand and dip this into the soapy water. 11. Shake off any excess water over the bowl. 12. Show the child how to clean the window in vertical lines from the top to the bottom, firstly with the sponge part. 13. Use the reverse side with the rubber blade and again in vertical movements, from top to bottom, clean off the lather to leave a clean window. 14. Use the cotton cloth the wipe off any bits of water or any streaks. 15. Once clean, show child how to pack away by throwing the dirty water into the bucket. The child throws remaining water from the jug into the bowl, swirls it to clean it and throws this into the bucket too. 16. Show the child where to throw the dirty water in the bucket. 17. Pick up the drying cloth, dry all the equipment, and return the work to the bucket. 18. Invite the child to have a turn.

Montessori Trinomial Cube PresentationMATERIALS: The trinomial cube is a wooden box with a cover and two adjacent hinged sides, containing 27 wooden blocks that fit together to form a cube with the same pattern on each side and in the middle. The cube has a visual representation of the algebraic formula (a+b+ c) (a+b+c) (a+b+c) or: (a+b+c) 3 3 control charts OBJECTIVES: To help develop the child’s visual perception of threedimensional patterns. To prepare the child for later work in Maths, especially algebra. To aid the child’s fine motor. Eye hand coordination. Concentration. To prepare the child for writing. CONTROL OF ERROR: The control charts The child feels that all the blocks have the same dimension. The colours of the cubes. AGE: 4 –5 years approx. PRESENTATION: Individual exercise done at a table on a work mat. Show the child how to carry the box and how to open and remove the box’s lid. Show the child how to lower the two adjacent hinged sides gently towards yourself. Show the child how to place the lid into the angle made by the opened sides, with the red square in the corner next to the box. Place the control charts beside and slightly in front of the box. Remove the top layer of cubes and place them on the furthest (a) control charts that you have placed in front of the cube. Place your flat hand on the cubes to ensure that they are all the same height. Repeat this removal for the next layer placing them on the control chart closer to you (b) again feeling that they are all the same height. Repeat this removal for the last layer, placing them on the control chart closest to you (c) again feeling that they are all the same height. Beginning with the red cube, that is, the cubes on control chart (c) place the SHORTER dimension cubes back onto the lid of the box. Feel that they are all the same height. Now place the TALLER cubes, on control chart (b) back onto the layer of cubes that are already on the lid of the box. Feel that they are all the same height with the flat of your hand. Now place the TALLEST cubes, on control chart (c) back onto the layer of cubes that are already on the lid of the box. Feel that they are all the same height with the flat of your hand. Beginning with the red cube from the top layer of cubes, replace them into the box wrapping the other cubes around the red cube. Place the blue cube in last. Feel with your flat hand that they are all the same height. Do the same for the second layer of cubes and for the third layer of cubes. Once the cubes are all back, fold up the sides of the box and draw attention to the fact that the pattern of the cubes inside the box resembles the pattern on the lid. Invite the child to have a turn.
EXTENSION 1 The child can build the Trinomial cube in exactly the same way but outside the box without the control charts. EXTENSION 2 One day, after the cube is built outside the box, show the child that all the cube’s faces have the same pattern on them. Turn the cube around to show the child that the back faces are the same too. Place both hands around the cube and lift it, to show the child that the bottom also has the same pattern on it. Show the child that the 12 inside faces have the same pattern. You will be able to do this by splitting the cube three ways, horizontally, vertically, and back to front. This will expose each face with each split. EXTENSION 3: Show the child how you can match all the faces of the cubes together. Build a horizontal line on the mat from left to right, matching all the same sized blue faces. Do the same with the red, black and yellow faces Invite the child to have a turn.
EXTENSION 4: The child can independently build the three separate layers of the Trinomial Cube and put them together to make the complete cube, although the child should put them together piece by piece, rather than trying to lift each layer in its entirety.

Montessori Binomial Cube PresentationMATERIALS: The binomial cube is a wooden box with a cover and two adjacent hinged sides, containing 8 wooden blocks that fit together to form a cube with the same pattern on each side and in the middle. The cube has a visual representation of the algebraic formula (a+b) (a+b) (a+b) or: (a+b) 3 control charts OBJECTIVES: To help develop the child’s visual perception of threedimensional patterns. To prepare the child for later work in Maths, especially algebra. To aid the child’s fine motor. Eye hand coordination. Concentration. To prepare the child for writing. CONTROL OF ERROR: The control charts The child feels that all the blocks have the same dimension. The colours of the cubes. AGE: 4 years approx. PRESENTATION: Individual exercise done at a table on a work mat. Show the child how to carry the box and how to open and remove the box’s lid. Show the child how to lower the two adjacent hinged sides gently towards yourself. Show the child how to place the lid into the angle made by the opened sides, with the red square in the corner next to the box. Place the control charts beside and slightly in front of the box. Remove the top layer of blocks and place them onto the lid, starting with the cube nearest the open side. Then remove the one to the left of that then the one to the right of that. Place them on the appropriate colour of the control lid. Feel that they are all the same height by placing your hand gently onto the layer of cubes. Place the next layer of cubes directly on top of the previous layer.
Now, remove the top layer of cubes and place it on the furthest (a) control charts that you have placed in front of the cube. Place your flat hand on the cubes again to make sure that they are all the same height. Repeat this removal for the next layer placing them on the control chart closer to you (b) again feeling that they are all the same height. Beginning with the red cube, that is, the cubes on control chart (b) place the SHORTER dimension cubes back onto the lid of the box. Feel that they are all the same height. Now place the TALLER cubes, on control chart (a) back onto the layer of cubes that are already on the lid of the box. Beginning with the red cube from the top layer of cubes, replace them into the box wrapping the other cubes around the red cube. Place the blue cube in last. Feel with your flat hand that they are all the same height. Do the same for the second layer of cubes. Once the cubes are all back, fold up the sides of the box and draw attention to the fact that the pattern of the cubes inside the box resembles the pattern on the lid. Invite the child to have a turn.
EXTENSION 1 The child can build the Binomial cube in exactly the same way but outside the box without the control charts. EXTENSION 2 One day, after the cube is built outside the box, show the child that all the cube’s faces have the same pattern on them. Turn the cube around to show the child that the back faces are the same too. Place both hands around the cube and lift it, to show the child that the bottom also has the same pattern on it. Show the child that the 6 inside faces have the same pattern. You will be able to do this by splitting the cube three ways, horizontally, vertically, and back to front. This will expose each face with each split.

Montessori Baric Tablets PresentationMATERIALS: 3 sets of 3 identical wooden tablets. Each set of tablets is made from a different kind of wood, so that the tablets in one set weigh about 9 grams, the next set weighs about 18 grams and the last set weighs about 27 grams. All the tablets are exactly the same size and shape.
OBJECTIVES: To help awaken and refine the child’s baric sense. To aid the child’s fine motor by cultivating a lightness of touch. To prepare the child for writing. Concentration Discrimination and judgement. CONTROL OF ERROR: The tablets from the different categories look slightly different as the woods look different. AGE: 3 years approx. PRESENTATION: Individual exercise done at a table. Remove the Baric Tablets from the lightest set and place them on the mat. Remove the heaviest set and place these beside the first set. Show the child how to balance the tablets, one from each set, onto the tips of your fingers, which are facing upwards. Your arms should be relaxed and your thumbs free. Avert your eyes, gently and slightly lift, and then relax your arms in order to get a feel of the relative weights of the baric tablets. Allow the child to feel the differences in weight, either by placing them on the child’s hands for him, or by the child picking them up off the table. Now, sit opposite the child asking him to avert his eyes. Place a tablet from either category and ask the child to feel and say which is the heavier one and which the lighter one. Form a pile with the lighter tablets on the left side and the heavier tablets on the right hand side.
The child then does the exercise with the tablets spread out on the table. He picks up two tablets without looking and feels whether they are the same or different. He may loudly identify each one as being either heavy or light and put it into its pile. When all the tablets have been sorted, the child looks at the pile again to see that he has in fact categorised them correctly. Again, mix up the tablets on the table and invite the child to do the exercise on his own.
PRESENTATION 2: The child can wear a blindfold to do the exercise. This time he can only verify his success at the very end of the activity. That is, he takes the blindfold off at the end and checks his success. PRESENTATION 3: The same as exercise 1 but the child uses the light (9g) and medium (18g) tablets together. PRESENTATION 4: The same as exercise 1 but the child sorts the medium (18g) tablets from the heavy tablets (27g) PRESENTATION 5: The child puts all three tablets out – one from each category. These tablets will serve as a reference. Only one tablet is selected from the mixed up category and it is compared to each of the “reference” tablets on the table. When two tablets feel the same, the randomly selected tablet is put behind the reference tablet. The child checks his work at the end. PRESENTATION 6: Give a three period lesson on the comparatives and superlatives of heavy, heavier, heaviest or light and lightest or simply heavy and light.

Montessori Touch Tablets Presentation
MATERIALS: Touch Tablets consist of 5 matching pairs of rectangular tablets with sandpaper covering one side. The sandpaper ranges from grainy smooth to heavily granular. OBJECTIVES: To help awaken the child’s tactile perceptual skills. To aid the child’s fine motor by cultivating a lightness of touch. To prepare the child for writing. CONTROL OF ERROR: Each sandpaper tablet has a slightly different look and colour. AGE: 2 ½ years approx. PRESENTATION: Individual exercise done at a table. The child should wash his fingers or sensitise his fingers first. Place the Touch Tablets from one set on the table feeling each one as you do so. Invite the child to feel the different textures. Place these tablets in a pile on the lefthand side of the table. Remove the other 5 tablets from the box, telling the child that “these are the same as the first 5 tablets”. Place these tablets in a randomly arranged group on the right hand side of the mat. Avert your eyes. Select one tablet from the lefthand group positioning it in front of you and try to feel for a match from the right hand group. Repeat this process until the selected tablet from the right hand group feels the same as the isolated tablet.
Show great satisfaction when the correct tablet has been located. Say, “these tablets feel the same”. Isolate the matched pair at the centre of the far edge of the mat. Once the matching process has been completed, the child feels all the pairs again to verify the match PRESENTATION 2: Take out all the tablets from one of the sets and tell the child that you are going to grade the tablets. Spread the tablets out in random order running from left to right. With eyes averted, feel each tablet and locate the roughest tablet. Place it to the left hand side of the mat. Keep finding the next roughest tablet each time, building a graded row from left to right. Invite the child to feel the graded row. You can then use the second set and invite the child to grade them from left to right. The child can check his graded row against yours by feeling both the sets. PRESENTATION 3: Give a three period lesson on the comparatives and superlatives of “rough” and “smooth” Use only three tablets at a time. 
Montessori Touch Fabrics PresentationMATERIALS: Each touch fabric is about 10cm by 10 cm. There are 6 identical pairs of different fabrics. Some fabrics may include: linen velvet, tweed, ribbed corduroy, cotton flannel. OBJECTIVES: To help awaken and refine the child’s tactile sense. To aid the child’s fine motor by cultivating a lightness of touch. To prepare the child for writing. Concentration Discrimination and judgement CONTROL OF ERROR: Each has a different look, colour, and texture. AGE: 2 ½ years approx. PRESENTATION: Individual exercise done at a table. The child should wash his fingers or sensitise his fingers first. Place the Touch Fabrics from one set on the table feeling each one as you take them out of the box. Feel the fabrics between your fingers and thumb, rubbing them gently together as you do so. Make a pile of the 6 different cloths on the left hand side of the mat. On the right hand side of the mat, place the remaining cloths in a random arrangement. With your eyes averted or closed, select one cloth from the lefthand pile and bring it to the centre of the mat. Keep feeling the cloths on the right hand side until you find the one that matches the cloth from the lefthand side. Show great satisfaction when the correct piece of fabric has been located. Say, “these fabrics feel the same”. Isolate the matched pair at the centre of the far edge of the mat. Repeat the matching process. Once the matching process has been completed, show the child how to feel all the pairs again to verify the match. Separate the cloths into their piles again and invite the child to have a turn.
PRESENTATION 2: The child repeats the exercise but wears a blindfold. PRESENTATION 3: If the child is interested, give a three period lesson on the various cloths in the fabric box. Use only three fabrics at a time. 
Montessori Touch Boards PresentationMATERIALS: Touch Board 1 – there are two sections, one rough and one smooth Touch Board 2 – there are 5 strips of the same texture sandpaper alternating along the length of the board with 4 smooth varnished areas. Touch Board 3 – there are 4 different textures, from slightly rough sandpaper to very rough sandpaper. OBJECTIVES: To help awaken the child’s tactile perceptual skills. To aid the child’s fine motor by cultivating a lightness of touch. To prepare the child for writing. CONTROL OF ERROR: If his fingers go off the sandpaper, he will feel the contrast. AGE: 2 ½ years approx. PRESENTATION: Individual exercise done at a table. The child should wash his fingers or sensitise his fingers first. Present touch board 1 first. Position the board so that the smooth side is on the lefthand side. With eyes averted, lightly brush the tips of the fingers of one hand over the smooth surface, pulling your hand towards yourself from far to near. Say “smooth”. Do the same with the “Rough” section. Invite the child to feel the different textures. Do a three period lesson with the words: smooth and rough.
Present Touch Board 2 next. Stroke the board in the same way alternatively saying “ rough, smooth, rough, smooth” Let the child feel this board. Again, do a three period lesson with rough and smooth. Present Touch Board 3 next. The smoothest sandpaper strip is on the lefthand side with the roughest on the right hand side. Brush your fingertips over the first strip from top to bottom and say “rough”. As you feel each strip of sandpaper so you will say “rougher, rougher, roughest”
Use a three period lesson to reinforce the comparative and superlatives remembering to always follow the same sequence. 
The Montessori Bells – additional exercises
MATERIALS: Set 1A series of bells representing the whole tones and semi tones of one octave from middle c. the bells are on black and white bases and correspond to the black and white notes on a piano. Set 2A second series of bells identical in sound to the above set but all on plain wooden bases and a wooden board marked into black and white spaces which are wide enough to hold one bell. A wooden striker A damper OBJECTIVES: To develop the child’s discrimination of pitch. To develop the child’s perception of tones To prepare the child for music. AGE: 4 years onwards High and low High and low are taught by means of the three period lesson. Select three bells from the diatonic scale e.g. Middle C and A – and bring them to the front of the mat isolating them from the others. Strike middle C, listen. Sing “this is low” then mute the bell. Strike A and listen. Sing “this is high” then mute the bell. Repeat. In the second period sing the “strike high” and “strike low” notes and encourage the child to answer by singing on the notes.
In the third period, ask, “what is this”? Comparitives and superlatives Select middle c and the three highest notes a, b, and c – and bring them down to the front of the stand to isolate them from the others. Strike middle c, sing “this is low”, and mute it. Strike a and sing “this is “high” and mute it. Strike b and sing “this is higher” and mute the bell. Strike c, sing “this is the highest”, and mute the bell. Continue in the usual manner with the second and third period. Names and notes of the diatonic scale Play the diatonic scale and tell the child that the notes have names. Sing the names as you strike the bells again from middle c, to c. Then select three bells e.g. Middle c, e and b. Bring them down to the front of the stand to isolate them from the others. Strike middle c, listen and sing in tune “ this is c” Invite the child to do the same. Then do likewise with e and b giving the child a turn. Continue as for the 3 period lesson. Teach all the notes in this way. Before each lesson, review the ones already learnt.
Names of sharps and flats Play up and down the chromatic scale and sing la, la ,la,la. Decide on a bell e.g. Middle c and d. Strike middle c and sing in tune la – mute it. Strike c # and sing in tune la – mute it. Explain to the child that the notes are very similar with only a semitone difference. Ask him to listen carefully and proceed to sing them again. Play c # (sharp) again and tell the child that this is called c sharp. It is just higher than c. Invite the child to have a turn. Strike d and sing “la”…mute it. Explain to the child that this note can also be called d flat. Ask to child to listen carefully, strike, and sing d and b flat. Continue as for a normal three period lesson. The other sharps and flats are similarly introduced.
NOTE: The child realises when working with the chromatic scale that when a black bell is to the right of a white bell it is called a sharp relative to the white bell. When a black bell is to the left of a white bell it is called a flat relative to that bell – although the child will be working with the brown bells in front of the bells mentioned. It is essential that the control set of Bells are always in the correct sequence. 
The Montessori Bells PresentationMATERIALS: Set 1A series of bells representing the whole tones and semi tones of one octave from middle c. the bells are on black and white bases and correspond to the black and white notes on a piano. Set 2A second series of bells identical in sound to the above set but all on plain wooden bases and a wooden board marked into black and white spaces which are wide enough to hold one bell. A wooden striker A damper OBJECTIVES: To develop the child’s discrimination of pitch. To develop the child’s perception of tones To prepare the child for music. CONTROL OF ERROR: For ex. 2, the child can check to see if he has graded the bells correctly by comparing the order of the bells of set 1. These are set out on the board in the correct order. AGE: 3 ½ years onwards Introductory exercise Demonstrate how to play the bells up and down the scale. The child can then select a single bell and isolates it from the others at the front of the stand or takes it to the table. He then strikes and mutes the bell alternately, or he strikes the bell and allows the note to die away. The child is encouraged to sing the note. PRESENTATION 1: Name the bells and show the child how to carry them. The bell should be carried in an upright position only, with one hand gripping the stem and the other hand beneath the base. Tell the child that we are going to pair the diatonic scale.
Set 1 is placed on the wooden board in the correct order. The Montessori Directress shows the child how to strike the bells with the hammer provided. Select three white and three corresponding brown bells on the board. The selected three brown bells should contrast in tone (low C, F and B for e.g.) Place them together, in a mixed up order, in the centre of the space on the table in front of the board. Take up the striker and strike one of the white bells (diatonic scale) and listen carefully to the sound. Then strike one of the brown bells and if it does not match move it to the far right hand side of the table. Strike the white bell gain, and try a second brown bell. Repeat until you find a match. Invite the child to strike each bell of the matched pair.
PRESENTATION 2: The child must distinguish differences and grade the bells. Using set 2, the bells are arranged randomly on the table from left to right. The child strikes one bell at a time. When the lowest bell is heard, he places it to the left of the mat and keeps on listening for the next highest bell. The highest bell will then be on the right hand side of the mat. PRESENTATION 3.: Another day, repeat the presentation with three new pairs of contrasting bells. As you introduce three new bells each day, reuse the pair that you used before. ( 1 known and 2 unknown) PRESENTATION 4: Another day, do the presentation with all eight brown bells mixed up on the front edge of the table. PRESENTATION 5: Give a three period lesson on the comparatives and superlatives of “high” and “low” or “highest” and “lowest” and so on.

Montessori Geometric Solids PresentationMATERIALS: Geometric Solids – cube, ellipsoid, ovoid, two pyramids, one square based and one triangular based, cone, rectangular prism, triangular prism, cylinder and a set of bases for the solids. Plane surfaces – cube, rectangular prism, triangular prism, pyramid Curved surface – sphere, ovoid, ellipsoid Flat and curved surfaces – cone, cylinder OBJECTIVES: To make the child familiar with, and to teach him the appropriate mathematical names for the various geometric solids. To make the child aware of the geometric solids that are found in the every day environment AGE: 3 plus years. PRESENTATION 1: This is an individual exercise done at the table. This is a sensorial exploration of the shapes. Lay a mat on the table and place the solids on it. Select three solids, preferably one from each family. That is, one curved solid, one plane solid and one plane/curved solid. Pick up the solid, feel it and pass it on to the child to feel. Experiment with the solids. See which ones roll and which ones do not roll. Place the curved solid in the base, indirectly drawing the child’s attention as to which are curved and which are angular. PRESENTATION 2: Take out all the bases and place them on the mat. Take out all the solids and place them correctly on their bases. When all are correctly placed, select a square base and see how many solids will fit correctly on it. Try placing a curved solid on it so that the child will see the difference.
PRESENTATION 3: The names of the different solids are introduced by the Three Period Lesson. The child should already know a cube from working with the Pink Tower, a prism from working with the Broad Stair, and a cylinder from the Knobless Cylinders. To begin with start with a shape they can already name.
Exercise 1: The child is asked to sort the solids. E.g., those with straight sides (plane) or those with curved sides or those containing both. . Exercise 2: The child is asked to experiment with the solids and place them together to try to form other solids. This should be followed by a discussion. Exercise 3: Using the set of bases, the child is asked to place each on its solid base, using the appropriate language. The child is helped to discover which solids have the same bases. The language used is important so that the child realises the importance of the number of straight edges and curves. Exercise 4: Place all the solids in a basket and cover the basket with a cloth. Ask one child to find a cone, another to find a sphere, another a cube etc. Exercise 5: Invite the child to feel one of the solids in the covered basket and to name the solid before he withdraws it from the basket. NOTE: It is important that the Montessori Directress should help make the children aware of geometric shapes found in the every day environment. This can be done informally or as a class project where children are asked to collect such items as empty cardboard boxes, tins etc. that correspond in shape to the solids.

Montessori Sound Cylinders PresentationMATERIALS: Two wooden boxes each containing 6 cylinders, which are filled with different objects so that when shaken they have a different sound. One box has a blue lid and blue topped cylinders. The red topped box has red topped cylinders. OBJECTIVES: To help awaken and refine the child’s auditory sense. To aid the child’s auditory memory. To aid the child’s auditory perception. To give the child experience in matching. Concentration Discrimination and judgement CONTROL OF ERROR: Each pair of cylinders sounds the same. Each pair of cylinders have a matching symbol underneath them. AGE: 3 years approx. PRESENTATION: Individual exercise done at a table. Bring both the boxes to the table. Remove the lid from the red set and place it underneath the box. Show the child how to hold the cylinder by its middle between the thumb and forefinger of one hand. Hold the cylinder by the right ear and give it two sharp shakes downward, listening intently to the sound it makes. Then hold it a few centimeters from the other ear and listen to it in the same way fixing the sound into your memory. Replace the cylinder on the mat. Listen to all the cylinders in this way and invite the child to listen. Arrange these red cylinders randomly in a vertical line on the lefthand side of the mat. Now place the blue lid under its box, remove the blue cylinders and place them in a group on the right hand side. Tell the child that the blue and red cylinders sound exactly the same. Proceed to match the cylinders. Take one of the red cylinders and bring it to the front of the mat. Listen to the cylinder as before. Take a blue cylinder from the line and listen. If the two cylinders do not match return the blue cylinder to the box to isolate it. Listen to the next blue cylinder until a match is found. If a match is found say “these two sound the same” and place the matched pair in the centre of the far edge of the mat. Allow the child to listen to the match. When all 6 pairs have been matched, shake each matched pair in turn, one cylinder at a time, from far to near, and invite the child to do the same. Separate the 6 pairs as before and offer the child a turn. PRESENTATION 2: Take out all the cylinders from one of the sets and tell the child that you are going to grade the cylinders. Arrange the red cylinders in a random row from left to right, at the centre of the mat. Shake each cylinder in the row, as many times as is needed to determine which is the loudest. If, necessary keep repeating and compare, two or three that are close in sound. Remove the loudest cylinder from the row and place it in front of the empty red box near the lefthand side of the mat. Of the remaining cylinders again determine which is the loudest and place the next loudest cylinder just in front of the first loudest along the left hand edge of the mat. Continue until all 6 cylinders have been graded. Either, let the child listen to the graded set or else take out the blue set and let the child grade these in the same way. When this done the child can check his graded set against your set by shaking each corresponding pair in turn. If the child shows great difficulty grading, on another day give the same presentation but take out only three cylinders from each colour.
PRESENTATION 3: Give a three period lesson on the terms: loud and soft. Give a three period lesson on the comparatives and superlatives of loud and soft such as loud, louder, loudest and the same with the soft, louder, loudest set or soft and softer. Extension / game Place the cylinders from one box on a tablemat and those from the other box on a table mat some considerable distance away. At the first mat, isolate one cylinder for the child to listen to and ask the child to find the matching cylinder on the distant mat and to bring it back to verify the match. 
Montessori Constructive triangles Box 5 – experimental boxMATERIALS: Box 5 is a triangular box which contains 8 blue triangles: · 2 small equilateral triangles. · 1 small obtuse angle scalene triangle. · 2 large right angle isosceles triangles. · 1 small right angle scalene triangle. · 2 medium right angle scalene triangles. OBJECTIVES: To give the child the opportunity to experiment with various geometric shapes. To show that all plane, flat, rectilinear figures are composed of triangles. To indirectly prepare the child for later work in Maths and Geometry. AGE: 4 – 4 ½ years approx. PRESENTATION: Individual exercise done at a table or on a floor mat. Select a triangle and show the child how to find the match by placing the triangles on top of its match. Holding one triangle with the left hand, slide the other triangle around it with the right hand. Make a shape and leave it for a while so that the child can see it. Slide the triangles back to its original shape. There are no black lines on the triangles to guide the child. This is the only box with no “control of error” – it is solely for experimental purposes. Also, sliding the triangles to find its match is only permitted in this exercise. PRESENTATION 2: Give a three period lesson on the names of the shapes. 
Montessori Constructive triangles Box 4 PresentationMATERIALS: Box 4 is a hexagonal box which contains the following 18 triangles: · 1 yellow equilateral triangle with no black lines. · 3 green equilateral triangles, two with the black lines on one side and one with black lines on two sides. · 2 red equilateral triangles with the black line on one side. · 6 red obtuse angle isosceles triangles with the black line opposite the obtuse angle, · 6 grey equilateral triangles with the black lines on two sides. OBJECTIVES: To give the child the opportunity to experiment with various geometric shapes. To discover, at a sensorial level, the various ways these shapes can be divided and combined to form other shapes. For later work in Maths and Geometry. CONTROL OF ERROR: The black lines. Visual AGE: 4 – 4 ½ years approx. PRESENTATION: Individual exercise done at a table or on a floor mat. 1. Take the 6 small grey equilateral triangles, construct a hexagon, keeping the nonline sides outwards. Invite the child to do the same after dismantling it for him. Put the hexagon to one side. 2. Take the 1 yellow equilateral triangle and the three red obtuse angle triangles and make a hexagon. 3. With the other 3 red obtuse angle triangles, allow the child to make an equilateral triangle on top of the yellow equilateral triangles, which was used to build the hexagon. 4. Take away the yellow equilateral triangles and construct the hexagon using the 6 obtuse angle isosceles triangles. 5. The two small equilateral triangles form a rhombus.
6. The three small green equilateral triangles form a trapezium 7. Look again at the grey hexagon, it divides into 2 trapeziums. Proceed to build the green trapezium on top of the grey trapezium. The grey hexagon also divides into 3 rhombi. 8. The red hexagon will also divide into three rhombi. PRESENTATION 2: Give a three period lesson on the names of the various triangles. 
Montessori Constructive triangles Box 3 PresentationMATERIALS: Box 3 is a hexagonal box which contains the following 11 triangles: · 3 yellow obtuse angle isosceles triangles with black lines opposite the obtuse angle on the longer side. · 3 yellow obtuse angle isosceles triangles with the black line on both sides containing the obtuse angle. · 2 grey obtuse angle isosceles triangles with the black line on one of the sides containing the obtuse angle. · 2 red obtuse angle isosceles triangles with the black line opposite the obtuse angle, · 1 large yellow equilateral triangle with the black lines on all the sides. OBJECTIVES: To give the child the opportunity to experiment with various geometric shapes. To discover, at a sensorial level, the various ways these shapes can be divided and combined to form other shapes. For later work in Maths and Geometry. CONTROL OF ERROR: The black lines. Visual AGE: 4 – 4 ½ years approx. PRESENTATION: Individual exercise done at a table or on a floor mat. 1. Take the large yellow equilateral triangle and ask the child to make a shape using the 3 isosceles triangles. He should easily make the hexagon shape, having practised with the other boxes. 2. Take 3 more yellow isosceles triangles and make a shape with them using the black lines as guidelines. Make an equilateral triangle. This equilateral triangle is the same as the one that forms the centre of the hexagon. Prove it by building these three triangles on top of it. Now the child will know that he can use the 6 yellow isosceles triangles to form a hexagon. 3. The two red obtuse angle isosceles triangles form a rhombus. 4. The two grey obtuse angle isosceles triangles form a parallelogram. 5. Show the child that the hexagon built with the 6 yellow isosceles triangles can be split into 3 rhombi. PRESENTATION 2: Give a three period lesson on the names of the various triangles. 
Montessori Constructive triangles Box 2 PresentationMATERIALS: Box 2 is a rectangular box which contains the following 14 triangles: · 2 yellow right angle triangles with black lines on the shorter side containing the right angle. · 2 green right angle scalene triangles with a black line on the longer side containing the right angle. · 2 yellow right angle isosceles triangles with the black line on one of the sides containing the right angle. · 2 yellow equilateral triangles with the black line on one side. · 2 grey right angle scalene triangles with the black line opposite the right angle, · 2 green right angle isosceles triangles with the black line opposite the right angle. · 1 red right angle scalene triangle with the black line on the longer side containing the right angle. · 1 red obtuse angle scalene triangles with the black line opposite the obtuse angle. OBJECTIVES: To give the child the opportunity to experiment with various geometric shapes. To discover, at a sensorial level, the various ways these shapes can be divided and combined to form other shapes. For later work in Maths and Geometry. CONTROL OF ERROR: The black lines. visual AGE: 4 – 4 ½ years approx. PRESENTATION: Individual exercise done at a table or on a floor mat. Remove the triangles from the box, one at a time. Place the box in the corner of the table with the lid underneath the box. Select one of the triangles. Hold it flat on the table with your left hand. Trace along the black lines with the middle and index fingers. Look around for the matching triangle. Once found, trace along the black lines again, using the middle and index fingers. Fit the two triangles together by sliding them together on the mat so that their black lines match and so that a new shape is formed. Place this shape to one side and continue in this way with the remaining triangles. Invite the child to try the exercise. When finished, show the child how to return the triangles to the box carefully. PRESENTATION 2: Give a three period lesson on the names of the various triangles.

Montessori Constructive triangles Box 1 Lesson PresentationMATERIALS: Box 1 is a triangular box which contains the following 10 triangles: · 4 red equilateral triangles with a black line on one of the 3 sides while the 4^{th} triangle has black lines on all 3 sides. · 3 yellow obtuse angle isosceles triangles with a black line on both sides of the obtuse triangles. · 2 green right angle scalene triangles with black lines on the longer side of the right angle. · 1 large grey equilateral triangles with no black lines. OBJECTIVES: To give the child the opportunity to experiment with various geometric shapes. To discover, at a sensorial level, the various ways these shapes can be divided and combined to form other shapes. For later work in Maths and Geometry. CONTROL OF ERROR: The black line and the large grey triangle. visual AGE: 4 – 4 ½ years approx. PRESENTATION: Individual exercise done at a table or on a floor mat. Remove the triangles from the box, one at a time. Bring the 2 green triangles closer together and feel along each of the triangle’s black lines with the middle and index fingers. Fit the two triangles together by sliding them together on the mat so that their black lines match together. Continue in this way with the yellow, then the red triangles. Check that the triangles are correct by placing the grey triangle on top of each new triangle and verifying the match.
Show the child how to return the triangles back in the box in order: red, yellow, green, and grey. PRESENTATION 2: Give a three period lesson on the apex, base, bisector, median, align 
Montessori Cloth Folding Lesson Activity
AREA
Care of the person
AGE
Three – three and a half
MATERIALS
 First square – stitches marking stitched line
 Second square – stitches marking diagonal
 Third square – stitches marking two stitched
 Four square – stitches marking to diagonals
DIRECT AIM
Fold cloth along the stitches
INDIRECT AIM
Concentration, preparation for geometry, fine motor movements
PRESENTATION
 Begin work cycle
 Place first square on work mat and smooth out.
 Place stitches of cloth to run parallel to you body
 Use index and middle finger of right hand and trace stitches left to right
 Grasp bottom corners of cloth with both hands in pincer grip and fold cloth away from you so that corresponding corners meet.
 Trace along stitching form left to right with index and middle finger of right hand
 Using index and middle finger of right hand to pat along fold to create a crease.
 Place Second Square on work mat and smooth out.
 Place stitched line of cloth to run parallel to you body
 Use index and middle finger of right hand and trace stitches left to right
 Place index finger of left hand on left top corner of cloth the cloth to support the folding process.
 Grasp bottom right of cloth with right hand in pincer grip and fold cloth away from you so that the top corresponding corners meet.
 Trace along stitching form left to right with index and middle finger of right hand
 Using index and middle finger of right hand pat along fold to create a crease.
 Place third square on work mat and smooth out.
 Place one of the stitched lines of cloth to run parallel to you body
 Use index and middle finger of right hand and trace stitches left to right
 Grasp bottom corners of cloth with both hands in pincer grip and fold cloth away from you so that corresponding corners meet.
 Trace along stitching form left to right with index and middle finger of right hand
 Using index and middle finger of right hand pat along fold to create a crease.
 Place next stitched line of cloth to run parallel to you body. To do this turn the entire cloth around.
 Use index finger and middle finger of right hand and trace stitches from left to right
 Place left index finger on to lefthand side of cloth.
 Grasp right hand corner of cloth in right hand in pincer grip and fold cloth away from your body so that corresponding corners meet.
 Trace along stitching form left to right with index and middle finger of right hand
 Using index and middle finger of right hand pat along fold to create a crease.
 Place fourth square on the work mat and smooth out.
 Place one of the stitched lines of the cloth to run parallel to you body
 Use index and middle finger of right hand and trace stitches left to right
 Place index finger of left hand on the left corner of the cloth to support the folding process.
 Grasp bottom right corner of cloth with right hand in pincer grip and fold cloth away from you so that corresponding corners meet.
 Trace along stitching form left to right with right index and middle finger.
 Using index and middle finger of right hand pat along fold to create a crease.
 Place the next stitched line of the cloth to run parallel to your body.
 Use the index and middle finger of your right hand and trace stitches left to right.
 Place left index finger on left corner of the cloth.
 Grasp bottom right corner of cloth with right hand in pincer grip and fold cloth away from you so that corresponding corners meet.
 Trace along stitching form left to right with index and middle finger of right hand
 Using index and middle finger of right hand pat along fold to create a crease
CONTROL OF ERROR
Stitches show if cloth is not folded correctly
EXTENSIONS
Folding table napkins, pillow cases, dish towels
VARIATIONS
Teaching vocabulary like meridian, diagonal, parallel
Folding different types of napkins
Doing Origami
Folding Fancy Napkins
Montessori Tweezing beads Presentation
AREA
Practical Life
Elementary Movements
AGE
3 ½ years
MATERIALS
Soap pad, tweezer, small beads in a container
DIRECT AIM
Tweezing beads from container onto suckers of a soap pad.
INDIRECT AIM
Eye hand coordination, develop pincer grip, patience and concentration, dexterity, strengthen fingers
PRESENTATION
 Invite the child to begin Work Cycle.
 The child places the tray on the mat in front of the adult.
 The adult pushes the tray to the top edge of the mat.
 Remove the container and place on the left of the mat, the soap pad on the right and the tweezers to the front of the mat.
 Grasp tweezers in a pincer grip with thumb on left grip and index finger on the right grip.
 Position tweezer over the bowl and tweeze one bead securing by applying gentle pressure on right and left grips.
 Move hand over to the first sucker on soap pad and lower tweezer. Place bead on sucker by gently releasing pressure on the grips.
Repeat procedure moving from left to right until the suckers on soap pad have been filled.  To return the beads to the container, tweeze the beads one at a time from each of the suckers into the container working from left to right.
 Replace the container on the left of the tray, the soap dish to the right and the tweezers in front.
 Bring tray to the centre of the mat.
 Invite the child to have a turn.
 End the work cycle.
CONTROL OF ERROR
Spilling beads
Picking up (with fingers) spilt beads
EXTENSIONS
Tweezing smaller articles such as rice
VARIATIONS
Tweezing different articles onto different surfaces/containers
Pouring through a funnel presentation
AREA
Practical Life
Elementary Movements
AGE
3 – 4 years
MATERIALS
A glass bottle, jug filled with (coloured) water, cloth.
DIRECT AIM
To pour water through the funnel into the glass/bottle.
INDIRECT AIM
Fine motor skills, eye hand coordination, concentration, develop strength in fingers, develop pincer grip, visual discrimination, dexterity, bilaterality, crossing the midline,estimation,
PRESENTATION
 Invite the child to begin Work Cycle.
 The child places the tray on the mat in front of the adult.
 The adult pushes the tray to the top edge of the mat.
 With right hand, remove the glass, jug and cloth from the tray and place both on the mat.
 With right hand grasp the handle of the jug. The four fingers are through the handle and the thumb is positioned at the top of the handle.
 With your left hand hold the funnel just above the glass bottle ensuring that it does not rest in the bottle but that it is constantly supported by your left hand.
 Using your right hand lift the jug and bring it over to above the funnel.
 With your right hand, rotate the jug so that the water pours through the funnel into the glass. Indicate to the child with a deliberate look that enough water has been poured into the glass.
 When enough water has been poured into the glass through the funnel, rotate the jug to its original upright position
 Move the jug over to the right hand side of the mat and place it down.
 Move the funnel to the centre of the mat away from the glass/bottle.
 Pick the cloth in your right hand and dab any droplets from the funnel.
 Pick the glass/bottle up in your right hand and move it over to the jug. Position it over the top of the jug and pour the water back into the jug.
 Pick the cloth up in your left hand and again dab any water droplets.
 Place the glass down on the mat to the left of the jug.
 Return the work to the tray.
 Bring tray to the centre of the mat.
 Invite the child to have a turn.
 End the work cycle
CONTROL OF ERROR
Spilling any of the water.
Overfilling the glass/bottle.
EXTENSIONS
 Pouring through a funnel:
 into different shaped glasses.
 into two stemmed glasses of equal size.
 into two stemmed glasses of unequal size
 Filling the sunlight bottles in the environment
VARIATIONS
Pouring different things such as beans,rice,salt.
Using different sizes of funnels.
Montessori Pouring water Lesson Presentation
AREA
Practical Life
Elementary Movements
AGE
2 ½ to 3 years
MATERIALS
Two identical jugs, water, a cloth, tray and mat.
DIRECT AIM
Pouring water from the right hand jug into the lefthand jug then from left jug into right jug. A cloth is to be used to wipe the lip of the jugs.
INDIRECT AIM
Concentration, eye–hand coordination, patience, hand control, eye convergence.
PRESENTATION
 Invite the child to begin Work Cycle.
 The child places the tray on the mat in front of the adult.
 The adult pushes the tray to the top edge of the mat.
 Remove the jugs one by one from the tray to the mat with the dominant hand in fluid movements ensuring the full jug is on the right. The cloth is placed at the front of the jugs.
 Grasp the handle of the jug with the index and middle fingers of the right hand. The right thumb is placed on top of the handle.
 Stabilise the underside of the jug with index and middle fingers of the left hand.
 Gently tilt and pour.
 Wipe lip with cloth.
 Replace jug and cloth on mat, cloth in front.
 Repeat for other hand.
 Replace jugs one by one on the tray ensuring full jug is on the right.
 Place cloth to the back of jugs.
 Place tray on centre of mat.
 Invite the child to have a turn
 End the work cycle.
CONTROL OF ERROR
Spilling water.
EXTENSIONS
Pouring into smaller jugs.
VARIATIONS
Pouring coloured water, milk.
Montessori Pouring beans Lesson Presentation
AGE
2 ½ to 3 years
MATERIALS
Two identical jugs, beans, tray and mat.
DIRECT AIM
Pouring beans from the right hand jug into the left hand jug then from left jug into right jug.
INDIRECT AIM
Concentration, eye–hand coordination, patience, hand control, eye convergence.
PRESENTATION
 Invite the child to begin Work Cycle.
 The child places the tray on the mat in front of the adult.
 The adult pushes the tray to the top edge of the mat.
 Remove the jugs one by one from the tray to the mat with the dominant hand in fluid movements ensuring the full jug is on the right.
 Grasp the handle of the jug with the index and middle fingers of the right hand. The right thumb is placed on top of the handle.
 Stabilise the underside of the jug with index and middle fingers of the left hand.
 Gently tilt and pour.
 Replace on mat.
 Repeat for other hand.
 Replace jugs one by one on the tray ensuring full jug is on the right.
 Place tray on centre of mat.
 Invite the child to have a turn.
 End the work cycle.
CONTROL OF ERROR
Noise of spilling of beans.
EXTENSIONS
 Use of smaller grains i.e. as rice.
 Pouring into smaller jugs, containers.
 Picking up (with fingers) spilt beans/rice.
VARIATIONS
Different types of beans, rice.
Montessori Botany Cabinet and 3 sets of corresponding CardsMATERIALS: Three sets of Leaf cards. Set 1 – Solid Outline Set 2 – Thick Outline Set 3 – Thin Outline OBJECTIVES: To make the child familiar with, and to teach him the appropriate leaf shape names. To lead the child towards abstraction. To refine the child’s reasoning powers. Preparation for reading and writing. Coordination of Movement. CONTROL OF ERROR: There is a card for each inset. AGE: 3 plus years. PRESENTATION 1: 1. This is an individual exercise done at the table or on the floor on a floor mat. 2. Bring the first Tray to the mat and place it in the centre of the mat. The child sits on your nondominant side. 3. Take the leaf cards from the Solid set and lay them out around the tray. 4. Lay a card out to the lefthand side of the tray, lay two cards out in front of the tray and lay the last card out on the right hand side of the tray. 5. Remove the insets slowly and gracefully by grasping the little white knob. Place them on their matching solid cards ensuring that the blue solid shape is totally covered. EXERCISE 1: The child works with the exercise as presented. EXERCISE 2: On another day, invite the child to work with the second drawer, and so on working with each drawer in succession. The child places the leaf inset on to each card in turn. EXERCISE 3: Later, the child repeats the exercise with: The broad outline cards The thin outline cards. EXERCISE 4: The child continues working until he can use all 3 drawers and all 3 sets of cards together at one time. Game 1: 1. Select a drawers of the cabinet and place it on a mat at one end of the room, ensuring that the children can see the shape. 2. Take the solid set of the cards, show a child the card and ask him to fetch the corresponding wooden inset. 3. When he brings it, let him fit it over the card. Show another card to another child and continue in this way until all the cards and insets have been matched. Game 2: 4. Select a drawer from the cabinet and place it on a mat at one end of the room, ensuring that the children can see the shape. 5. Take an inset this time, show a child the inset and ask him to fetch the corresponding card. 6. When he brings the card back, let him fit the inset and card together. 7. Show another inset to another child and continue in this way until all the cards and insets have been matched. Game 3: 1. Place two mats on the floor a good distance apart. 2. A variety of insets are placed on one mat and assorted cards are placed on the other mat. 3. Point to one inset and ask the child to bring the corresponding card. Specify whether it should be solid, a thick outline, or a thin outline. Game 4: 1. Spread all the cards from set 1 on the table. 2. Place set 2 on another table and place all the leaf drawers from the cabinet on a third table. 3. Mix the cards from set 3 and give a few to a group of children. 4. Ask them to find the corresponding insets and cards to those they have been given. 5. In doing so they have to remember the leaf shapes they have been given. Game 5: 1. Using two sets of leaf cards e.g. The solid and thick outline, share out one set of cards among the children who then place them on their tables face up. 2. Hold up one card from the other set and the child who has the corresponding card turns his card down. 3. The game continues until all the cards are used up. Game 6: 1. A more difficult variation of this game can be played by turning the card face down on the table. 2. Allow the children to have a thorough look at them. 3. Then when the Montessori Directress holds up the card from her set, the child remembers and recognises it as his card. Game 7: Stereognostic exercise 1. Place the leaf shapes and a few frames, into the stereognostic bag or blindfold the child. 2. Let the child feel the shapes and frames and replace the corresponding shape into the frame. 
Montessori Botany Cabinet Lesson PresentationMATERIALS: A wooden cabinet with 3 drawers containing wooden frames. The wooden insets are of basic leaf shapes. An orange stick. Each inset has a knob for handling. Drawer 1: Pairs – cordate, obcordate, obovate, ovate. Drawer 2: Contrasts – lanceolate, aciculate, spatulate, linear, hastate, saggitate. Drawer 3 : Contrasts – reniform, orbiculate, deltoid (triangular), elliptical OBJECTIVES: To make the child familiar with, and to teach him the appropriate leaf shape names. To develop the child’s visual perception To teach the child new language. CONTROL OF ERROR: There is a socket for each inset in the tray in the cabinet. There is a card for each inset. AGE: 3 plus years. PRESENTATION 1: 1. This is an individual exercise done at the table. 2. Bring the 1st Tray to the table and sit on the right hand side. The child sits on your nondominant side. 3. Choose 3 contrasting shapes. 4. Remove the insets slowly and gracefully by grasping the little white knob. 5. Place each leaf inset on the plain wooden spaces opposite. 6. With the fleshy tips of your fingers feel the entire edge of the inset in one continuous movement, starting at the near bottom corner and moving anti clockwise. 7. Gently place the inset down and with the same fingers as before, feel the entire inside edge of the space in that inset’s frame, in one continuous movement. Again, start at the far lefthand corner and move anticlockwise. 8. Pick up the inset and by your facial expression show that you have affirmed the shape in that they both feel the same. 9. In one smooth, continuous movement, replace the inset into its frame. 10. Repeat this process for the other 2 leaf shapes in the Tray. 11. If the leaf shape is intricate, use an orange stick to trace around the shape. EXERCISE 1: The child works with the exercise as presented. EXERCISE 2: On another day, invite the child to work with the second drawer, and so on working with each drawer in succession. EXERCISE 3: The child unrolls a floor mat and works with 2 drawers at a time. EXERCISE 4: The child unrolls a floor mat and works with 3 drawers at a time. 
Montessori Geometric Cabinet and 3 sets of corresponding CardsMATERIALS: Three sets of Geometric cards. Set 1 – Solid Outline Set 2 – Thick Outline Set 3 – Thin Outline OBJECTIVES: To make the child familiar with, and to teach him the appropriate geometric names for the various geometric shapes. To make the child aware of the geometric shapes that are found in the every day environment. Preparation for Geometry. Preparation for reading and writing. Coordination of Movement. CONTROL OF ERROR: There is a card for each inset. AGE: 3 plus years. PRESENTATION 1: This is an individual exercise done at the table or on the floor on a floor mat. Bring the Circle Tray to the mat and place it in the centre of the mat. The child sits on your nondominant side. Take the circle cards from the Solid set and lay them out around the tray. Lay two cards out to the lefthand side of the tray, lay two cards out in front of the tray and lay two cards out on the right hand side of the tray. Remove the insets slowly and gracefully by grasping the little white knob. Place them on their matching solid cards ensuring that the blue solid shape is totally covered. EXERCISE 1: The child works with the exercise as presented. EXERCISE 2: On another day, invite the child to work with the second drawer, and so on working with each drawer in succession. The child places the inset on to each card in turn. EXERCISE 3: Later, the child repeats the exercise with: The broad outline cards The thin outline cards. Game 1: Place all the drawers of the cabinet at one end of the room, ensuring that the children can see the shape. Take one set of the cards, show a child the card and ask him to fetch the corresponding wooden inset. When he brings it, let him fit it over the card. Show another card to another child and continue in this way until all the cards and insets have been matched. Game 2: Scatter two or three sets of cards on the mat from the solid set or from the broad /thin outline. Take one card away and see whether the child can identify which one you took away. Game 3: Place two mats on the floor a good distance apart. A variety of insets are placed on one mat and assorted cards are placed on the other mat. Point to one inset and ask the child to bring the corresponding card. Specify whether it should be solid, a thick outline, or a thin outline. Game 4: Spread all the cards from set 1 on the table. Place set 2 on another table and place all the drawers from the cabinet on a third table. Mix the cards from set 3 and give a few to a group of children. Ask them to find the corresponding insets and cards to those they have been given. In doing so they have to remember the figures they have been given. Game 5: Using two sets of geometric cards e.g. The solid and thick outline, share out one set of cards among the children who then place them on their tables face up. Hold up one card from the other set and the child who has the corresponding card turns his card down. The game continues until all the cards are used up. Game 6: A more difficult variation of this game can be played by turning the cards face down on the table after the children have thoroughly looked at them. Then when the Montessori Directress holds up the card from her set, the child remembers and recognises it as his card. NOTE The children must be familiar with the cards and cabinet before playing these games. 
Montessori Geometric Tray Lesson PresentationMATERIALS: 1. Presentation tray, 3 insets. A square, a circle, an equilateral triangle. 2. Geometric Cabinet. Drawer 1: 6 circles Drawer 2: 6 rectangles Drawer 3: 6 triangles Drawer 4: 6 polygons Drawer 5: 4 curved figures Drawer 6: 4/6 quadrilaterals OBJECTIVES: To make the child familiar with, and to teach him the appropriate geometric names for the various geometric shapes. To make the child aware of the geometric shapes that are found in the every day environment. Preparation for Geometry. Preparation for reading and writing. Coordination of Movement. CONTROL OF ERROR: There is a socket for each inset in the tray in the cabinet. There is a card for each inset. AGE: 3 plus years. PRESENTATION 1: This is an individual exercise done at the table. Bring the Presentation Tray to the table and sit on the right hand side. The child sits on your nondominant side. Remove the insets slowly and gracefully by grasping the little white knob. Place them on the plain wooden spaces opposite, so that there appears to be 2 squares, 2 circles and 2 triangles. With the fleshy tips of your fingers feel the entire edge of the inset in one continuous movement, starting at the near bottom corner and moving anti clockwise. Gently place the inset down and with the same fingers as before, feel the entire inside edge of the space in that inset’s frame, in one continuous movement. Again, start at the far lefthand corner and move anticlockwise. Pick up the inset and by your facial expression show that you have affirmed the shape in that they both feel the same. In one smooth, continuous movement, replace the inset into its frame. Repeat this process for the other 2 shapes in the Presentation Tray. EXERCISE 1: The child works with the exercise as presented. EXERCISE 2: Show the child how to remove, carry and replace drawers in the Geometric Cabinet. Begin with the circle drawer. Invite the child to work with the top drawer treating it just like the Presentation Tray. Place the insets in front of the tray. With the fleshy tips of your fingers feel the entire edge of the inset in one continuous movement, starting at the near bottom corner and moving anticlockwise. Gently place the inset down and with the same fingers as before, feel the entire inside edge of the space in that inset’s frame, in one continuous movement. Again, start at the far lefthand corner and move anticlockwise. Pick up the inset and by your facial expression show that you have affirmed the shape in that they both feel the same. In one smooth, continuous movement, replace the inset into its frame. On another day, invite the child to work with the second drawer, and so on working with each drawer in succession. Exercise 1: The child works through all the drawers of the cabinet one by one. 
Montessori Knobless Cylinders Lesson PresentationMATERIALS: Four sets of 10 cylinders. Each set is a different colour and has a corresponding colour lid. Yellow cylinders vary in height and diameter. Green cylinders vary in height and diameter. Red cylinders vary in diameter. Blue cylinders vary in diameter. OBJECTIVES:
CONTROL OF ERROR: Visual – the child can see irregularities in the seriation. If the tower topples. AGE: 2 ½ – 3 years approx. PRESENTATION: Individual exercise done on a floor mat or on a table. Place a mat on the working space. Select the yellow box first. Show the child how to carry the box using two hands cupped around the box. Remove the cylinders one by one grasping them over the top with your dominant hand. Place the box neatly to the side and the top of the mat. Show the child how to grade the cylinders from biggest to smallest in a horizontal line. Exercise 1: The child grades the cylinders. PRESENTATION 2Show the child how to build a tower with the cylinders starting with the largest cylinders first. If the mat has a thick, uneven pile, you may use the lid of the box as a base. Exercise 2:The child builds the tower. Exercise 3: The child uses the four sets of cylinders together to discover different properties such as similarities and differences in dimensions between the cylinders. 
Montessori Colour Wheel Lesson PresentationMATERIALS: Colour box 3 : A box divided into 9 sections,containing seven shades of nine different colours: Blue, red, yellow, purple, orange, green, pink, black to white, brown Round plate for the centre OBJECTIVES:
CONTROL OF ERROR: Visual the child can see the differences. The Montessori Directress. AGE: 4 years plus PRESENTATION:

Montessori Colour box 3 Lesson PresentationMATERIALS: A box divided into 9 sections,containing seven shades of nine different colours: Blue, red, yellow, purple, orange, green, pink, black to white, brown Neutral coloured work mat. OBJECTIVES:
CONTROL OF ERROR: Visual the child can see the differences. The Montessori Directress. AGE: 4 years plus PRESENTATION: Individual exercise done on a neutral coloured tablemat. Show the child how to carry the colour box to the work mat by supporting the bottom of the box with the fingers cupped under the box and the thumb on the top of the box. Remove the lid and place it under the box at the top right hand corner of the mat. A. Firstly, take three contrasting shades from the selected colour. Show the child how to grade the tablets from dark to light or vice versa. Place the tablets on the table so that the frames are on the top and bottom of the tablets. B. As soon as the child can grade these three tablets, the Montessori Directress introduces all seven shades to the child. Place the tablets randomly on the table and proceed to grade them from darkest to lightest. Invite the child to have a turn. C.The child may then grade any of the other nine colours but only one at a time until he has completed the box. D.The child may use 2, 3,4 or all nine shades together. 
Montessori Colour box 2 Lesson PresentationMATERIALS: A box containing 22 tablets, of which there are two of the following: Blue, red, yellow. – primary colours Purple, orange, green – secondary colours Pink, grey, brown – tertiary colours White and black Neutral coloured work mat. OBJECTIVES:
CONTROL OF ERROR: Visual the child can see the differences. The Montessori Directress . AGE: 3 years plus PRESENTATION:
Language:Using the three period lesson the Montessori Directress tells the children the appropriate colour names after he has successfully paired the tablets. He works firstly with the Primary colours, then the secondary colours and finally with the remaining colours. 
Montessori Colour box 1 Lesson Presentation
MATERIALS:
A box containing six tablets, of which two are blue, two are red and two are yellow (the primary colours).
Neutral coloured work mat.
OBJECTIVES:
 To develop the child’s visual perception of colour.
 To develop the child’s coordination of movement.
 To develop visual discrimination
 To give the child experience in matching.
 Concentration
 To develop fine motor coordination
 To develop the pincer grip
CONTROL OF ERROR:
Visual the child can see the differences.
AGE:
2 ½ years approx.
PRESENTATION:
 Individual exercise done on a neutral coloured table mat.Show the child how to carry the colour box to the work mat by supporting the bottom of the box with the fingers cupped under the box and the thumb on the top of the box.
 Remove the lid and place it under the box at the top right hand corner of the mat.
 Remove the tablets one by one showing the child how to handle the tablets only by the frames. Handle the tablets between the thumb, index and middle finger and place the tablets randomly on the table. The Montessori Directress deliberately picks up one tablet and places it vertically in front of the child so that the frame of the tablet is at the top and bottom of the tablet.
 Ask the child to find a tablet that looks the same as the one that has just been placed. Show the child how to place this one beside the other tablet. Continue with the child in this way until all three pairs have been matched.
Exercise1 :
The child pairs the tablets as he has been shown.
Introducing Language:
Using the three period lesson the Montessori Directress tells the children the appropriate colour names after he has successfully paired the tablets.
Montessori Broad (Brown) Stair Lesson PresentationMATERIALS: 10 brown wooden Prisms which are all the same length but whose height and breadth increase by one centimetre each time. Work mat. OBJECTIVES: To develop the child’s visual perception of dimension. To develop the child’s coordination of movement. To provide experiences of seriation by showing the relationships between prisms. To give the child basic language important in Maths. Gross motor movements Concentration CONTROL OF ERROR: When the child feels the stair he may realise there is a prism out of sequence. AGE: 2 ½ – 3 years approx. PRESENTATION:
Should the child struggle with this exercise he can do: AThe 4 or 5 smallest prisms B The 5 largest prisms C 5 successive prisms from the middle D Use every other prisms Game 1 The child may use the Pink Tower and Broad Stair together and discover the relationship between them. He may discover various differences and similarities. Give the child appropriate language as he makes his discoveries. 
Montessori Pink Tower Lesson PresentationMATERIALS: 10 pink wooden cubes varying in size from one cubic cm. To one cubic decimeter. Work mat. OBJECTIVES: To develop the child’s visual perception of dimension. To develop the child’s coordination of movement. To provide controlled experiences of seriation particularly working with the cube which is important in Maths. To give the child basic language important in Maths. To strengthen the child’s hands for writing. CONTROL OF ERROR: The tower will topple. The child may see the irregular pattern when he walks around the tower. AGE: 2 ½ years approx. PRESENTATION: Individual exercise done on a floor mat. Place a floor mat on the working space. Show the child how to carry each cube to the mat by supporting the bottom of the cube with the left hand held just below the block and with the right hand held stretched over each cube. The will give the child a muscular impression of size. The cubes are randomly placed on the mat. Show the child how to build the cube starting with the largest cube first. Each cube is placed centrally on the previous cube. When the tower is built, ask the child to walk around the tower with you looking at the tower from all sides. Exercise 1: The child builds the tower Presentation 2: Once the child can build the tower as in presentation 1 show the child how to build a tower which has two flat walls all the way up. Show the child how the smallest pink cube fits around every ledge of the tower. Exercise 2: The child builds a tower in this way. Should the child struggle with this exercise he can do: AThe 4 or 5 smallest cubes B The 5 largest cubes C 5 successive cubes from the middle D Use every other cube.
Game 1 The Montessori Directress hides one of the cubes and the child says which one is missing. 
Montessori Knobbed Cylinders Lesson Presentation
MATERIALS:
Block A – the cylinders vary in height and dimension from short/narrow to tall/wide.
Block B– the cylinders vary in height and diameter from tall/narrow to short/wide.
Block C– the cylinders vary in diameter.
Block A – the cylinders vary in height.
OBJECTIVES:
To develop the child’s visual perception of dimension.
To develop the child’s coordination of movement.
To provide controlled experiences of seriation.
To give the child basic language important in Maths.
To strengthen the child’s fingers for writing.
CONTROL OF ERROR:
The cylinders will not fit snuggly into their sockets.
The socket will be too big for the cylinder.
AGE:
2 ½ years approx.
PRESENTATION:
Individual exercise done at a table.
Bring block A from the shelf showing the child how to support the underside with the small fingers. Place the cylinder block in the front of the table leaving enough space to place the cylinders.
Remove the cylinders from left to right holding the knob of each cylinder between the thumb and first two fingers. Mix the cylinders in the front as you remove them.
After a short pause, return the cylinders choosing them in order of size from left to right.
Exercise 1:
The child does the exercise as presented using one block at a time until he is able to work with each block separately.
Exercise 2:
The child repeats the exercise using two blocks together and they are placed in a “V” formation. Say”angle” as you feel the inside of the blocks with the two fingers of your dominant hand. Remove the cylinders from each cylinder, holding the knob of each cylinder between the thumb and first two fingers. Mix the cylinders in the space between the angles as you remove them.
After a short pause, return the cylinders in no particular order.
You can also place the cylinders in a parallel formation, feel the parallel formation with your middle and index fingers, and name it: “parallel”. Remove the cylinders from each cylinder block, holding the knob of each cylinder between the thumb and first two fingers. Mix the cylinders in the space between the parallel blocks as you remove them.
After a short pause, return the cylinders in no particular order.
Exercise 3:
The child repeats the exercise using three blocks together. They are placed in the shape of a triangle. Show the child how to feel the triangle.
Exercise 4:
The child repeats the exercise using four blocks together.
They are placed in the form of a square. Show the child how to feel the square and then how to remove the cylinders from each cylinder block, holding the knob of each cylinder between the thumb and first two fingers. Mix the cylinders in the middle of the square.
After a short pause, return the cylinders in no particular order
Exercise 5:
The child repeats the exercise using four blocks together.
They are placed in the form of a rectangle. Show the child how to feel the rectangle and how to proceed as before.
Games:
The cylinders are placed on a table and the cylinder block is placed on another table some distance away. She places a flag into a hole in the cylinder block and asks the child to fetch the correct cylinder.
Games:
Each child takes a cylinder and holds it behind his back.
The block remains on the table. The Montessori Directress
points to one of the holes and invites the children to discover who has the corresponding cylinder by feeling his hidden cylinder.
Montessori Opening and closing bottles lessonAREA Practical Life Elementary Movements AGE 3 years MATERIALS Assorted bottles picture of the materials DIRECT AIM How to open and close bottles with various lids. INDIRECT AIM Fine motor skills, eye hand coordination, concentration, develop strength in fingers, dexterity. PRESENTATION1. Invite the child to begin Work Cycle. 2. Position the tray at the top of the mat. 3. Using your dominant hand, remove bottles from the tray arranging them horizontally from left to right. To open: Screw off lid 4. Grasp the first bottle on far lefthand side with your left hand bringing it slightly forward to the front of the mat. 5. With your right hand, pincer grip the fingers over the lid screwing the lid anticlockwise in quarter turns whilst gently lifting it until lid releases from the bottle. 6. Place lid in front of the bottle. Salad bottle7. Grasp the salad bottle with your left hand bringing it slightly forward to the front of the mat. 8. Grasp the bottle with both hands with fingers wrapped around the front of the bottle and thumbs on the levers. 9. Press lever forward and away from you to release. 10. Push the lid (attached to the wiring around the neck of the bottle) to hang over the mouth of bottle. 
Cork/stopper11. Grasp the bottle with your left hand bringing it slightly forward to the front of the mat. 12. With your right hand, pincer grip the fingers over the cork manipulating it back and forth whilst gently lifting it until cork releases from the bottle. 13. Place cork in front of the bottle. To closeScrew on lid 14. Hold the lid in your right hand in a pincer grip, and with the left hand, bring bottle slightly forward. 15. Bring lid towards bottle holding it against the edge of the neck of the bottle so that the child can see the shape of lid and neck as being the same size. 16. Lower the lid gently, align thread and turn in quarter turns until lid is secure. 17. Place on mat. Salad bottle 18. Using right hand, position lid onto neck of bottle so that the child can see the shape of lid and neck as being the same size. 19. Supporting the bottle with your thumbs, with the index finger of both hands, pull lever down towards the bottle until it clicks into place. 20. Place on mat. Cork/stopper 21. Hold the cork/stopper in your right hand in a pincer grip, and with the left hand, bring bottle slightly forward. 22. Bring cork/stopper towards bottle holding it against the edge of the neck of the bottle so that the child can see the shape of cork/stopper and neck as being the same size. 23. Lower the cork/stopper gently manipulating it downwards back and forth until secure. 24. Place on mat. 25. Invite the child to have a turn. 26. End the work cycle. CONTROL OF ERROR The lids will not fit securely Wear and tear of lid EXTENSIONS Snapper lid i.e. Pantene shampoo; Fixed screw open and closed lid revealing sprinkling holes i.e. Johnsons Baby Powder VARIATIONS Bottles of different size and colour 
Montessori Unrolling and rolling a floor mat LessonAREA Practical Life Elementary Movements AGE 21/2 years MATERIALS Floor mat picture of the material DIRECT AIM How to unroll and roll a floor mat. INDIRECT AIM Concentration, gross motor coordination, visual discrimination, respect for peers, crossing of mid line (smoothing out mat) PRESENTATION How to unroll the mat1. Invite the child to begin Work Cycle. 2. Place the rolled up mat in front of your body. 3. Position your knees on the edge of the rolled mat. 4. Using the tips of your fingers, gently push the mat away from your body to unroll slightly. With left hand, smooth out left side of mat and with right hand, the right side. 5. Again, using the tips of the fingers, roll out mat further repeating smoothing process. Repeat until mat fully unrolled. How to roll up a mat6. Position your body at the end of the mat. 7. Grasp the mat with the fingers on top of the mat and the thumbs on the underside of the mat and roll your hands to create a roll in the mat. 8. Continue to roll the mat a few times. 9. Still holding the mat with your left hand, tap the right hand edge of the roll with the right hand. Exchange hands and tap with the left hand. 
10. Place both hands on the mat and continue rolling. Repeat tapping action with alternate hands. Continue until the mat is entirely rolled. 11. Swivel the mat around. 12. Invite the child to have a turn. 13. End the work cycle. 
CONTROL OF ERROR The mat will not fit into the mat stand. VARIATIONS Rolling mats of different sizes and textures i.e. a rolled serviettte. 
Montessori Unlocking and locking padlocks Lesson
AREA Practical Life Elementary Movements
AGE 3 – 4 years
MATERIALS One basket and three sets of different sized padlocks with keys. picture of the materials
DIRECT AIM Unlock and lock padlocks of different sizes.
INDIRECT AIM Fine motor skills, eye hand coordination, concentration, develop strength in fingers, develop pincer grip, visual discrimination, dexterity.
PRESENTATION 1. Invite the child to begin Work Cycle. 2. The child places the tray on the mat in front of the adult. 3. The adult pushes the tray to the top edge of the mat. 4. With right hand, remove the basket from the tray and place on mat. 5. With right hand, remove padlocks (individually) from the basket and arrange in order of size from left to right horizontally across the mat. 6. With a right hand pincer grip, grasp the keys (individually) and place in front of respective padlock. 7. Using lefthand pincer grip, pick up padlock and turn it so that the child can see the keyhole. 8. With your right hand, pick up corresponding key in a pincer grip and gently slide into keyhole. 9. Turn key clockwise until it clicks. 10. Return key to its place on mat, open padlock arm slightly and return to position on the mat to show it is unlocked. 11. Continue to do the same with other padlocks. 12. To close padlock, using left hand index finger and thumb, hold the base of the padlock. With your right index finger and thumb, depress padlock arm so that it clicks into locking position. 13. Return to padlock to relevant position on mat. 14. Continue to do the same with other padlocks 15. Moving from left to right, with right hand pincer grip, replace padlocks in basket. 
16. With righthand pincer grip, moving from left to right, pick up keys and return to the basket and place the basket on the tray. 17. Bring tray to the centre of the mat. 18. Invite the child to have a turn. 19. End the work cycle. CONTROL OF ERROR Noise – dropping padlocks and/or key Colour coding of padlock and key
EXTENSIONS Unlock a padlock in environment Unlock door in environment Unlock combination lock i.e. suitcase
VARIATIONS Different sizes of locks and keys. 
The Montessori Red Rods Lesson Activity
The Montessori Red Rods, Pink Tower and Broad Stair are a sequence of materials designed to enable a young child to explore dimension.
How to present the Montessori Broad Stair Lesson Activity
How to present the Montessori Pink Tower Lesson Activity
MONTESSORI RED RODS ACTIVITY:
The Montessori Red Rods (also known as “Long Rods”) – Montessori Sensorial Lesson Activity for Ages 0 to 6
MONTESSORI RED RODS OBJECTIVES:

To develop the child’s visual and muscular perception of length.

To develop the child’s coordination of movement.

To provide controlled experiences of seriation.

To give the child basic language important in Maths.

Coordination, Balance, Concentration.
MONTESSORI RED RODS MATERIALS:
 10 Red Wooden Rods all the same thickness but varying in length from one decimeter to one meter.
 Each rod increases in length by the length of the smallest rod. The pieces then stand in the same relation to one another as the natural series of the numbers 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10.
 Work mat.
MONTESSORI RED RODS CONTROL OF ERROR:
 The rods will not be in a stair formation and the child may feel the irregularity.
 The child may see the irregular pattern.
 The smallest rod fits into each successive step.
AGE:
2 ½ years approx.
MONTESSORI RED RODS PRESENTATION 1:
 Individual exercise done on a floor mat.
 Place a floor mat on the working space.
 Show the child how to carry each rod to the mat one by one by holding each rod at the top with one hand and at the bottom with the other. This will give the child a muscular impression of length.He should hold the rods upright so that he does not bump into other children.The rods are randomly placed on the mat.
 Show the child how to build the rods starting with the shortest rod. Align the rod with the edge of the mat. Using your middle and index finger lightly trace along the entire length of the rod.
 Find the next longest rod. Bring it into position next to and above the previous rod and trace along its length again. Proceed with all the rods in this way until the stair is entirely built.
 Pause and admire the stair and then mix up the rods and invite the child to try.
 Should you see the child struggling, mix the rods up but align the mixed up rods along the edge of the mat.
 Once the child has successfully built the stair, show him how to fit the shortest rod into each successive stair.
Should the child struggle with this exercise or for younger Children from Age 1 to 3 they can do:
 The 4 or 5 smallest rods
 The 5 largest rods
 5 successive rods from the middle
 Use every other rod.
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This is what people have to say about Montessori Helper…
Thanks for the clear explanations in the use of the sensorial materials. They are a great help in my teaching the young kids.
Adele
I love the resources. they are eye openers. You cared which i share among my students
Sharma
thanks for this outline.. im working on opening a daycare next year.. this is a big help… thanks andGod bless… im working on a limited budget but i like to believe that Montessori is not for the rich here in Manila. i believe that I can bridge the gap and offer it also to the poor kids…or middle income families as well. thanks again.
Christina  MontessoriHelper Premium Unlimited Member
Thank you so much for your very fast response and for your comments.
As mentioned, I think what you are doing is simply superb. You are helping people to bring education to kids who cannot afford this education. Most of us who do this work do so on a small budget of our personal funds. So I am grateful that this is affordable to me.Tony  MontessoriHelper Premium Unlimited Member
Hi!
Thank You for nice book.I am teacher in primary school in Croatia. My English is not very good, but I can understand a lot of words.I think that all good teachers just must do similar like M. Montessori done.
Because that, I try to learn new methods conected with education, and I will be visitor of Yours site. Maybe only free topics, but ...You understand...I have downloaded book and I am so excited. I hope something I will do with pupils in my class.
Best wishes, Mirna  Osijek  CroatiaOsijek
Great site! for Montessori directress, teachers, helpers, administrators of Nursery schools as well as mothers. keep it up.
Arshad
you are a GOD sent angel to my school.... montessori principles, materials, and a lot of innovative materials towards the use of the montessori program had perfected my idea and assured me that I am towards success. thank you for your great help as your name connotes.
Mary
INSPIRING!
Yoga
your program is v nice
Hina
This is a fascinating real helper!
Beryl
I am an early child hood educator for the past 13 years and I like this site. Always looking for different ways to teach concepts
Elvie
Hi I am an Early Childhood Educator I really like this site and looking forward for more information about the Montessori Method.
Virginia
I have been searching for these for a while now. These are very nice. Thank you so much! I can't wait to laminate and put these on the shelf. : )
Emmalice  MontessoriHelper Premium Unlimited Member
I am very happy to have discovered this site, keep up the good job
Olojedi
It's easy and fun 2 learn with Montessori apparatus.
Olusi  Lagos state Poly
I love the Montessori method. It is the best.
Promise  National Open University of Nigeria
My children loved to add up to ten and they feel curious about putting the rods back forming the normal red and blue rods.
Suzana
I found it very resourceful and interesting , at least i benefited from it
Maurice
Hi, My daughter is 7 yrs now she started learning through phonetic sound only and she made me learn also. Now she is able to read even the difficult words with sound(if she wants to) without my help. its the best medium for teaching kids.
Garima
This site is the Best Educational Website I have EVER come across. I have been finding useful information since I established my Montessori College here in Ghana.
Montessori College  Ghana
Hi, I am Linda from Nigeria and I run a Nursery and Primary school. In my little understanding of what I have read about Montessori, we are practicing this method in our school. However, the biggest problem is how to get the materials and equipments . The ideas you have shared have really helped me .Thanks a mil....Linda.
Linda
Lastly  I like the wording on the subscription page. Makes sense. And you really have nice materials  you really do.
Lynne  Montessori Helper Premium Unlimited Member
Hi! im currently studying to be a montessori teacher and i find your site helpful and interesting.
Michelle  Montessori Student
Wonderful, Splendid...I would like more on the mechanics of correct hand writing and reading
Mukesh k
i like your link very much...i teach preschool children age 5 and 6...it's very useful to me...i would like to know more about montessori teaching and lessons so i can use it in my lesson daily...
best of luck,
ekinEkin
The site is good and helpful
Alzahar
We are member of AMS and we always appreciate updates .. Montessori way of learning is very effective.. Children learn from basics to learning for life...
Emerlinda American Montessori Society
This is agood service , plz keep on the pace , its wonderful
Steven
Many thanks for your help. It has really helped. Very nice of you. Excellent service.
MH Subscriber
It is really fascinating and very helpful,for teachers teaching in Childhood development.Could I please ask for help using this method in an Indigenous curriculum?
Yolanda
nice,it's very educating
Abdul Subchan
Hi,
Montessori helper it a great pleasure to use this site.Sita
I really like your site very much...
Thanks
Xhilda
The site is good and helpful for resourceful and creative teachers.
Thanks
Abdul Waas
Thanks for the link.. I really appreciate your support.Thank you for sharing.I would like to more more about the Montessori Method.
Faweeza
I like your site. since I started a montessori for the church I find it very useful. Thank your so much. would like to know more.
Christine
hi. I really like this site because it has lots of information about the Montessori Method. I want to know more about it and wish the very best to your team for creating this mindblowing idea for us.
Farzana Pakistan
This Day is dedicated to affirming that poverty is a violation of human rights. The day is devoted to presenting and promoting concrete activities to ensure the eradication of poverty. Click here to Download these Free Materials “10 Simple Poverty Statistics every Child Can Learn with Ease.”
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FREE BONUS # 3 – The Absorbent Mind
A downloadable book written by Dr Maria Montessori ($29.00 Value!)
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A downloadable book written by Dr Maria Montessori ($29.00 Value!)
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