Size: Each Page is A4 in size and has four worksheets per page representing addition of 9 through to 18.
Number of Pages : 5
Instructions for use :
 Download the Montessori worsheet PDF file to your PC and then print it out.
 Use the worksheets as required and to accompany other lesson activities
 This worksheet cannot be purchased individually, but it is included with all memberships
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OBJECTIVES:
To help the children sort and classify.
To show the children the difference between plants and animals.
To show children the relevance of classification.
AGE:
3 – 6 years approx.
MATERIALS:
A set of pictures of plants (flower, tree, cactus etc.)
And animals (cat, dog, human etc.)
These should be mounted on white card.
The card should measure about 14cm x 10 cm.
Each card should be laminated.
PRESENTATION:
 This is an individual exercise.
 Place the heading cards at the top of the table or floor mat.
 Discuss the fact that both plants and animals are living things: they eat, move, reproduce, breathe and grow.
 Discuss the fact that plants breathe carbon dioxide and animals breath oxygen
 Show the child one picture at a time, and ask the child if they think the picture is of a plant or an animal.
 Show the child how to place the card in the appropriate column.
 Once the child has sorted the cards, show the child how to check the control of error at the back to see that the categories all match.
CONTROL OF ERROR:
A dot or appropriate colour coding at the back of each card.
EXTENSION:
The child can make his own chart of plants and animals by cutting pictures out of a magazine.
The child pastes them onto their appropriate columns
Alternatively, the child can draw pictures of plants and animals.
OBJECTIVES:
To help the children sort and classify.
To show the children the difference between vertebrates and invertebrates.
To show children the relevance of classification.
AGE:
3 – 6 years approx.
MATERIALS:
A set of pictures of examples of Vertebrates (human, horse, lizard etc.)
And invertebrates (spider, earthworm, jellyfish etc) things
These should be mounted on white card.
The card should measure about 14cm x 10 cm.
Each card should be laminated.
PRESENTATION:
 This is an individual exercise.
 Place the heading cards at the top of the table or floor mat.
 Discuss the fact that vertebrates have a spinal cord and invertebrates do not
 Show the child one picture at a time, and ask the child if they think the picture is of a vertebrate or invertebrate.
 Show the child how to place the card in the appropriate column.
 Once the child has sorted the cards, show the child how to check the control of error at the back to see that the categories all match.
 Now do a presentation on “Parts of the Spine”
CONTROL OF ERROR:
A dot or appropriate colour coding at the back of each card.
EXTENSION:
The child can make his own chart of vertebrates and invertebrates by cutting pictures out of a magazine.
The child pastes them onto their appropriate columns
Alternatively, the child can draw pictures of vertebrates and invertebrates.
OBJECTIVES:
To help the children sort and classify.
To show the children the difference between living and nonliving things.
To show children the relevance of classification.
AGE:
3 – 6 years approx.
MATERIALS:
A set of pictures of obvious LIVING (wild animals, domestic animals, plants, humans etc.)
And NONLIVING (bicycle, wall, rock, etc.) things
These should be mounted on white card.
The card should measure about 14cm x 10 cm.
Each card should be laminated.
PRESENTATION:
 This is an individual exercise.
 Place the heading cards at the top of the table or floor mat.
 Discuss the fact that living things: eat, move, reproduce, breathe and grow.
 Show the child one picture at a time, and ask the child if they think the picture is of a living or nonliving thing.
 Show the child how to place the card in the appropriate column.
 Once the child has sorted the cards, show the child how to check the control of error at the back to see that the categories all match.
CONTROL OF ERROR:
A dot or appropriate colour coding at the back of each card.
EXTENSION:
The child can make his own chart of living and nonliving things by cutting pictures out of a magazine.
The child pastes them onto their appropriate columns
Alternatively, the child can draw pictures of living and nonliving things.
OBJECTIVES:
To show the child how water magnifies objects.
To broaden the child’s general knowledge.
To make the child aware of the properties of water.
AGE:
3 years plus
MATERIALS:
A piece of paper laminated with a word printed on it.
Dropper bottle
Water
Drying cloth
PRESENTATION:
CONTROL OF ERROR:
The Montessori Directress
EXTENSION:
Fill a glass up with water. Take a pen or pencil and place it in the water and watch the object enlarge as it is placed in the water.
MATERIALS:
The sandpaper globe
Bowl of water for sensitising the fingers.
Drying cloth.
OBJECTIVES:
To introduce the child to the concept that the earth is made of land and water.
AGE:
3 – 6 years
PRESENTATION 1:
 This is an individual or group exercise.
 Ask the children to wash their hands or to sensitise their finger tips. Show the children how to carry the sandpaper globe to the table with one hand supporting the base and the other supporting the globe.
 Put both your hands over the globe, feeling the shape of the “earth” and invite the children to feel the shape of our planet. We call our planet, Earth. Tell the children that this is the shape of our Earth.
 Trace around all the lands including the small bits and tell the child that this is all land. Feel the smooth part with your whole hand and tell the child that this is the water.
 Invite the child to do the same.
 Do a brief three period lesson on the land and water, saying “ Show me the land. Show me the water.”
 In the third period point to the land and say “ what is this?” and point to the water and say “ what is this”?
CONTROL OF ERROR:
The rough sandpaper acts as a control. The children can feel when their fingers have gone off the sandpaper.
AGE
4.5 to 5 years
MATERIALS
Two sloping boards, each containing 5 metal frames and insets.
Square, rectangle, trapezium, triangle, pentagon.
Circle, oval, ellipse, quatrefoil, curvilinear triangle.
White squared paper the same size as the outer frame.
A selection of coloured pencils and their holders.
A smooth mat or tile for “pressing on.”
DIRECT AIM
To help the child’s proficiency in the use of a pencil.
INDIRECT AIM
To cultivate lightness of touch, control of line, familiarity with the curves and lines found in letters.
To work in an anticlockwise direction in preparation for writing.
Fine motor control, precision and concentration.
To develop the chromatic sense and encourage creativity.
PRESENTATION 1
 Invite the child to get a work mat or work board.
 Name the material and show where it is kept.
 Invite the child to take the tile, 2 pieces of paper, 3 coloured pencils, a frame (rectangle) and its inset, to the table.
 Show the child how to hold the pencil in his dominant hand in a pincer grip, and how to hold the frame steady with his other hand. He places his left hand on the lefthand side of the frame.
 The child needs to sit in a comfortable position with his back upright in the chair and both feet on the ground.
 Place the outer frame on the paper, ensuring that the paper coincides exactly with the edges of the paper.
 Select a coloured pencil. Hold the frame steady and trace carefully around the interior edge of the frame in one continuous, anticlockwise movement.
 Remove the frame and place it on the table on the mat.
 Select a different coloured pencil.
 From the lefthand edge of the drawn frame, draw continuous, tight lines from left to right.
 Fill the figure entirely with the tight, parallel lines.
 Observe the result with the child. Invite the child to use the other piece of paper to repeat the process.
 Show the child how to store his finished work in his work folder.
 It is advisable to place a date stamp on the back of the child’s work and his name if he is unable to write it himself.
PRESENTATION 2
 The child does the activity as in the exercise above.
 Show the child how to trace the frame and then how to turn the frame and trace around that too.
 The 2 shapes are then superimposed upon one another to form 2 shapes.
 Select different coloured pencils.
 From the lefthand edge of the drawn frame, draw continuous, tight lines from left to right. The Montessori Directress can also show the child how to draw zigzags from left to right, top to bottom.
 Fill the figures entirely with the tight, lines
PRESENTATION 3
 The child does the activity as in the exercise above.
 Show the child how to trace the frame and its matching inset.
 The 2 shapes are then superimposed upon one another to form a shape with two similar lines, the one line just slightly smaller than the other.
 Again, from the lefthand edge of the drawn frame, draw continuous, tight lines from left to right. The Montessori Directress can also show the child how to draw zigzags from left to right, top to bottom.
 Fill the figure entirely with the tight lines.
PRESENTATION 4
 The child does the activity as in the exercise above.
 Show the child how to trace the frame and another shaped frame. (Rectangular frame and the oval frame for example.)
 The 2 shapes are then superimposed upon one another to form an interesting shape with two different lines.
 Again, from the lefthand edge of the drawn frame, draw continuous, tight lines from left to right. The Montessori Directress can also show the child how to draw zigzags from left to right, top to bottom.
 Fill the figures entirely with the tight, continuous lines.
PRESENTATION 5
 The child does the activity as in the exercise above.
 Show the child how to trace any two shaped insets.
 The Montessori Directress shows the child how to fill in the whole piece of inset paper.
 Again, from the lefthand edge of the drawn frame, draw continuous, tight lines from left to right.
 The Montessori Directress can also show the child how to draw zigzags from left to right, top to bottom as well as from top of the paper to the bottom of the piece of paper, working from left to right.
 Fill the figures entirely with the tight lines
PRESENTATION 6
 The child does the activity as in the exercise above but this time the child may want to use a slightly bigger piece of paper ( half A4 size perhaps).
 Show the child how to trace any two shaped insets.
 The Montessori Directress shows the child how to fill in the whole piece of paper.
 Again, from the lefthand edge of the drawn frame, draw continuous, tight lines from left to right. The Montessori Directress can also show the child how to draw zigzags from left to right, top to bottom as well as from top to bottom, working from left to right.
 Fill the figures entirely with the tight, lines
PRESENTATION 7
 The child does the activity as in the exercise above but this time the child may want to use a slightly bigger piece of paper (half A4 size or A4 size, perhaps).
 Show the child how to trace any shaped insets and how to create a border design to decorate his work.
 Again, from the child may want to fill in the spaces with various zigzags.
PRESENTATION 8
 The child does the activity as in the exercise above but this time the child may want to use a slightly bigger piece of paper (half A4 size or A4 size, perhaps).
 Show the child how to trace any shaped insets and then how to draw lines that have been graded either from darkest to lightest or the opposite direction, with different shades of the same coloured pencil crayon.
 Again, from the child may want to fill in the spaces with various zigzags.
 The child can name the different shades.
AGE
4.5 to 5 years
MATERIALS
A selection of verb or action words, in a basket.
The verbs are written in lower case on red card.
The card measures 11cm by 6cm.
A floor mat.
DIRECT AIM
To define the function of the verb through an activity.
INDIRECT AIM
To experience the function of the verb.
To associate the function of the verb through the use of the red coloured cardboard.
PRESENTATION
 This is a group activity. Gather about 6 children. Tell the child that we are going to work on the floor at the mat.
 The Montessori Directress hands each child a card, and asks each child to read his card and to perform the action.
 The rest of the group tries to guess each child’s action.
 The children might respond with suggestions from the action card, with examples such as, clap, wink, blink, stand, jump, hop, run, nod, sit, tug, yell, skip.
 As the children guess the correct answer, so the Montessori Directress tells the children, “Yes, Marie’s verb card is jump and so she jumped.”
 The Montessori Directress consolidates the lesson by saying, “Did you notice, each child had an action card that told them which action to do, and we could guess the ACTION. ACTION words are also known as VERBS.
Thank the children for playing the Verb game with you.
CONTROL OF ERROR
Teacher
AGE
4.5 to 5 years
MATERIALS
A selection of crayons in a basket.
A floor mat.
DIRECT AIM
To define the function of the adjective through an activity.
INDIRECT AIM
To experience the function of the adjective.
PRESENTATION
 This is a group activity. Gather about 6 children. Tell the child that we are going to work on the floor.
 Place the different crayons on the floor.
 The Montessori Directress says to each child, “ Please can you pass me a crayon”.
 The child passes you one of the crayons. You respond by saying, “No, that’s not the crayon I wanted.”
 The child passes you another crayon. You respond by saying, “No, that’s not the crayon I wanted.” Repeat this a few times.
 The child may get impatient and ask, “Which crayon it is that you want?”
 At this point, the Montessori Directress says, “I wanted the long crayon, or the thin crayon, or the thick crayon.”
 She consolidates the lesson by saying, “Did you see how difficult it was to know which crayon to give me until I described the object? That’s because I have to DESCRIBE the object first so that you know which one to pass me. Those types of words are called “DESCRIBING” words or adjectives. They are very important types of words.
 Repeat the exercise briefly but this time naming what it is you want and ask the children if they think that this way is easier?
 Thank the children for playing the adjective game with you.
CONTROL OF ERROR
Teacher
AGE
4 years approx.
MATERIALS
A wooden box in two sections, each section has 5 compartments.
The compartments are marked from 0 to 9.
There are 45 spindles in a wooden box.
DIRECT AIM
To teach the child that numbers can represent a collection of separate objects.
INDIRECT AIM
To give the child an experience of zero.
PRESENTATION 1
 Begin the work cycle.
 Ask the child to lay out a table or floor mat.
 The child carries the boxes to the table one by one.
 Look at the spindle with the child and name it.
 Point to the one on the box and say “one”.
 Place one spindle in your left hand and say “one”.
 Place the spindle in the appropriate compartment and again say “one”.
 Point to the next number and ask the child what number it is.
 The child says two. You count two spindles, singly, into your hand. Close your hand around the spindles showing the child how we get a muscular impression of the quantity.
 Now transfer them to the child’s hand, again one by one and invite the child to feel how “two” spindles feel.
 Ask the child to count them into the “two” compartment. He should do so singly again.
 Invite the child to continue. You may have to point to the numbers initially so that the child can get the idea.
 Draw the child’s attention to the empty compartment and invite the child to feel inside it. Ask him what he feels and his response will be “nothing”. Reinforce to the child that nothing is the same as “zero” or “nought”.
 Show the child how to pack the spindles back into the box and how to return the work to the shelf.
PRESENTATION 2
 The same as exercise 1 except that the child uses ribbons or elastic bands to tie each group of two to nine spindle into a bundle before placing them into the their partition.
 Show the child how to use the short ribbons first and then the longer ones for the larger numbers.
CONTROL OF ERROR
The quantities are loose and the numbers are fixed.
There are only enough spindles for each compartment.
AGE
4 Years
MATERIALS
10 wooden rods coloured red and blue.
Each successive rod is bigger by 10cm.
A set of number cards from one to ten kept in a separate box.
A floor mat.
DIRECT AIM
To combine the quantities of one to ten with their symbols.
PRESENTATION 1
 Begin the work cycle.
 Ask the child to lay out a floor mat.
 The child carries the rods to the mat holding them in the same manner as with the red rods.
 Tell the child that the red sections should be at the lefthand side of the mat.
 As the child to place down the rods in a random but parallel arrangement on the mat, as though they are ready to be built.
 Show the child how to lay the number cards out at the bottom of the mat, in random order.
 Invite the child to count the rod closest to him.
 He should locate the matching number tablet.
 He places the matching number on the end of the rod in an upright position facing you.
 Alternatively, invite the child to pick a number tablet, read it and match it against its corresponding rod.
 The child continues until all the ten tablets are paired with their corresponding rods.
 When you get to the number ten, introduce the child to this number.
PRESENTATION 2
 Ask the child to build a stair with the number rods. The number symbols should be spread out in a random arrangement at the bottom of the mat.
 Ask the child to count the first rod and then to match the corresponding number symbol to it.
 He places the matching number on the end of the rod in an upright position facing you.
 The child continues until all the ten tablets are paired with their corresponding rods in a stair formation.
PRESENTATION 3
Once the child is quite familiar with this work tell him you are going to show him something new:
COMPOSITION WITH THE NUMBER RODS.
 Let the child build and match the number rods as in presentation 2
 Isolate the ten Rod.
 Similarly, isolate the ninerod and bring it in front of the tenrod leaving a small gap between the two rods.
 Align them exactly on the lefthand side.
 Ask the child “ which rod do we have to put in here to make them the same length?” – indicating the space to the right of the nine rod.
 When the child selects the unit rod, place it and its tablet on the right end of the nine rod.
 Count the nine rod from left to right and continue with the one rod, calling it “ten”.
 Then state the combination saying, “nine and one makes ten” touching the appropriate rods while speaking
 Repeat the entire process with the 8 and 2 rod, then the 7 and 3 rod, and then the 6 and 4 rod.
 Lastly, two 5’s are shown to make 10 by aligning the 5rod with the others on the left, and then by flipping the rod over so that it aligns with the others on the right.
 In the same way, the child combines two rods to make up the length of the ninerod, and then the eightrod and so on down to the unit rod which ofcourse can not be made up with different rods.
PRESENTATION 4
The child can now be shown DECOMPOSITION with the number rods
 Set aside one of the combinations, and explain the subtraction saying, “ten take away three leaves seven” touching the appropriate rods as you speak. It is simpler when there are no number tablets on the rods at this point.
 The child performs a subtraction for each of the combinations.
PRESENTATION 5
 As the child gains more experience, you can then show him on a blank piece of paper how to record his answers
 As you write each number so you refer to the number rods.
 Explain what the symbols mean and if necessary do a three period lesson on the meaning of the symbols.
 Show the child how to record his answer.
.
CONTROL OF ERROR
The quantities on the rods are fixed so this will act as a control of error.
The colours of the rods.
AGE
3.5 Years
MATERIALS
10 wooden rods coloured red and blue
Each successive rod is bigger by 10cm.
The rods represent fixed quantities.
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DIRECT AIM
To teach the child the concrete concept of one to ten.
INDIRECT AIM
To teach him sequencing from one to ten.
PRESENTATION 1
 Begin the work cycle.
 Ask the child to lay out a floor mat.
 The child carries the rods to the mat holding them in the same manner as with the red rods.
 Tell the child that the red sections should be at the lefthand side of the mat.
 Ask the child to build a stair just as he did with the red rods.
 Once the stair has been built, push the rods to the top of the mat keeping only the first three rods in the front of the mat.
 Do a three period lesson with the one, two and three rod.
 The Montessori Directress should touch each section of the rod as she presents the numbers.
 Ask the child to touch each section as he counts them too.
 Remember to isolate the rods in the first and third period.
 Always remember to present one known and two unknown number rods at a time.
 The child should always build the rods in sequence and the Montessori Directress removes the relevant rods from the constructed stair, so that the child can see where the rods fit into sequence
CONTROL OF ERROR
The stair.
The colours of the rods
AGE
2.5 to 3 years approx.
MATERIALS
Mystery bags A, B, C.
Solid objects, e.g. cubes, cylinders and spheres – several of each.
A bag and a felt mat.
Set of objects similar in shape but different in size, e.g. buttons. There should be several of each size and a few small dishes.
Set of objects, different in size and shape, e.g. pasta, small beads, dried peas or beans. There should be several of each shape and size and a few small dishes
A bag containing a collection of small familiar objects, e.g. teaspoon, cotton reel, large button, ring, marble, and coin. (Vary the contents of the bag from time to time as this exercise is very popular with young children)
DIRECT AIM
To educate the stereognostic sense
INDIRECT AIM
Language development
Ex. 1 prepares the child directly for geometry.
PRESENTATION 1
 Place the felt mat on the table.
 Remove the solids one by one feeling each solid.
 Invite the child to feel the solids.
 Replace them in the bag, find for example a cube, and place it on the mat.
 Then find another cube in the bag and place it beside the first cube so that the child can see the objective of the exercise.
 Invite the child to find a matching pair from the bag.
PRESENTATION 2
The Montessori Directress presents the dish containing the objects from Set 2, i.e. buttons. Show the child how to feel and sort the objects into the small dishes. When the child understands the exercise, ask him to do it with his eyes closed.
Game 1
This is a game. The Montessori Directress sits at the table and the children sit in a circle around her.
The Montessori Directress empties the bag on the table and the children see the contents. Then she puts the contents back into the bag and invites the children one at a time, to come and close their eyes, put their hands into the bag, pick any object and name it, before removing it from the bag. The child must say what the object is by feeling it and not seeing it.
Game 2
Vary the objects in the bag and play the game without showing the children the contents beforehand.
CONTROL OF ERROR
Visual, the paired objects should all look the same.
As a foundation for writing and arithmetic the child has learnt (in a cognitive fashion), “concrete” experiences through the sensorial and practical life lesson activities. These are a vital precedent to beginning Maths activities as they introduce size and dimension through the senses.
We recommend you complete most of the lessons in the
All these early sensorial and practical life activities which have brought order into the child’s mind, would be wasted were they not firmly established by means of written (abstract) language and of (abstract) figures, and this is described as the process of moving from “concrete” to “abstract”.
Once this process is established via the Montessori Method, the child is open to an unlimited field for future education. What we have done, therefore, is to introduce the child to “abstract” concepts through the a process of “concrete” cognition.
By contrast, in mainstream schooling methods we try to teach abstract concepts not yet grounded by relevant concrete experiences, and these “concrete” experiences and the progression of then into the “abstract” are an absolutely vital foundation to enable a child to progress to abstract learning in the first instance.
Similar to the process of building a house, by applying the Montessori Method in Maths, we establish a firm foundation first, to prevent the house from being structurally weak over time, even if the house appears all in order from the outside.
When you join to become a MontessoriHelper Premium Member you will have access to the complete Montessori Scope and Sequence for Ages 3 to 6. The Curriculum Tracker is intuitive and helps you to follow the correct scope and sequence for the Montessori Method. It also includes all the Lessons and Materials you will need (as well as our apps) and you will not need to populate the curriculum to do this. It will work as a complete solution as soon as you have signed up. It is a great tool for small schools and homeschoolers, helping you to take the guesswork out of scope and sequence and saving you time because you do not need to find lessons and materials to follow it, everything is available for you from the page you are on. Now you can track a child’s progress with ease and don’t need to worry about needing anything additional to follow the Montessori Method at school or at home.
ACTIVITY : Sandpaper Sounds / Letters
MATERIALS:
A set of square cardboards containing the sounds or the shapes of the letters of the alphabet in sandpaper.
The letters are written in lowercase.
5 of the cards are blue card, representing the vowels.
The remainders of the letters are on pink card.
A table mat.
OBJECTIVES:
To help the child recognize the shape of the letters and the sounds they make.
CONTROL OF ERROR:
The roughness and smoothness of the sandpaper. The letter may be placed towards the right hand side of the card so that the child has a space to hold the card with his left hand.
AGE:3 ½ – 4 years approx.
PRESENTATION:
This Lesson will be available soon
AREA:
Practical Life
AGE:
2.5 to 3 years
MATERIALS
Two identical bowls
Beans
Spoon
Mat and tray
DIRECT AIM
Spooning beans from the left bowl to the right bowl.
INDIRECT AIM
Refining fine motor skills
Working from left to right
Developing concentration
Developing pincer grip
Eye convergence
Eye hand coordination
Patience
PRESENTATION
AREA:Practical Life AGE:3 – 3 1/2 years
MATERIALS
Pegs with loose springs, 1 basket container.
DIRECT AIM
To peg and unpeg with the plastic pegs
INDIRECT AIM
Eye hand coordination
Develop pincer grip
Patience and concentration
Dexterity
Strengthen fingers and arm
PRESENTATION
 Invite the child to begin Work Cycle.
 The child places the tray on the mat in front of the adult.
 The adult pushes the tray to the top edge of the mat.
 Remove the basket with your dominant hand.
 Remove the pegs using the pincer grip, one by one, from the side of the basket.
 Show the child what the opened peg mouth looks like.
 Position the pegs on the mat in front of the basket.
 Place them down from left to right in a horizontal line.
 Tell the child you will now show her how to replace the pegs onto the side of the basket.
 Pick up the peg on the left hand side of the mat.
 Apply pressure and watch the mouth of the peg open.
 Deliberately place the peg over the edge of the basket, release your grip on the peg and watch it attach to the side of the basket.
AREA
Practical Life
AGE
3 ½ to 6 years
MATERIALS
Tray
Control chart
Knife, fork, cup, saucer, napkin, salt and pepper set, side plate.
DIRECT AIM
To set the table for a meal.
INDIRECT AIM
Gross motor skills
Developing concentration
To care for the environment
Strengthen muscles in the arms
Sequencing
Bilaterality
Crossing the midline
Spatial orientation
Birds eye view perspective.
PRESENTATION
AREA
Practical Life
AGE
3 to 5 years
MATERIALS
Plastic bucket
Soap
Soap dish
Apron
Scrubbing brush
Sponge
Bowl
Plastic mat
Jug
Drying cloth
Note : The materials are all kept inside the bucket.
DIRECT AIM
To scrub the table.
INDIRECT AIM
Gross motor skills
Working from left to right
Developing concentration
To care for the environment
strengthen muscles in the arms and sequencing.
PRESENTATION
Montessori Washing a window PresentationAREA Practical Life Elementary Movements AGE 4 6 years MATERIALS A window in the classroom that is at the correct height for the child ,plastic mat, bucket, jug, liquid cleaner, squeegee, drying cloth. PRESENTATION1. Invite the child to begin the Work Cycle. 2. Show the child where the equipment is kept. 3. Ask the child to bring the equipment over to the window. 4. Unpack the equipment on the floor mat in order of use. 5. Ask the child to collect water in the jug up to the water line. 6. Pour this water into the bucket leaving a little in the jug for cleaning up with. 7. Pick up the bottle of cleaner. Unscrew the bottle and drop a few drops of liquid into the water. 8. Using your dominant hand, place your hand in the bowl and swirl it around to mix in the liquid. 9. Dry your hand. 10. Pick the squeegee up in your dominant hand and dip this into the soapy water. 11. Shake off any excess water over the bowl. 12. Show the child how to clean the window in vertical lines from the top to the bottom, firstly with the sponge part. 13. Use the reverse side with the rubber blade and again in vertical movements, from top to bottom, clean off the lather to leave a clean window. 14. Use the cotton cloth the wipe off any bits of water or any streaks. 15. Once clean, show child how to pack away by throwing the dirty water into the bucket. The child throws remaining water from the jug into the bowl, swirls it to clean it and throws this into the bucket too. 16. Show the child where to throw the dirty water in the bucket. 17. Pick up the drying cloth, dry all the equipment, and return the work to the bucket. 18. Invite the child to have a turn.

AGE
4 –5 years approx.
MATERIALS
The trinomial cube is a wooden box with a cover and two adjacent hinged sides, containing 27 wooden blocks that fit together to form a cube with the same pattern on each side and in the middle. The cube has a visual representation of the algebraic formula (a+b+ c) (a+b+c) (a+b+c) or (a+b+c) 3
3 control charts
DIRECT AIM
To help develop the child’s visual perception of threedimensional patterns.
INDIRECT AIM
To prepare the child for later work in Maths, especially algebra
To aid the child’s fine motor
Eye hand coordination
Concentration
To prepare the child for writing.
PRESENTATION
Individual exercise done at a table on a work mat.
 Show the child how to carry the box and how to open and remove the box’s lid. Show the child how to lower the two adjacent hinged sides gently towards yourself.
 Show the child how to place the lid into the angle made by the opened sides, with the red square in the corner next to the box.
 Place the control charts beside and slightly in front of the box.
 Remove the top layer of cubes and place them on the furthest (a) control charts that you have placed in front of the cube. Place your flat hand on the cubes to ensure that they are all the same height.
 Repeat this removal for the next layer placing them on the control chart closer to you (b) again feeling that they are all the same height.
 Repeat this removal for the last layer, placing them on the control chart closest to you (c) again feeling that they are all the same height.
 Beginning with the red cube, that is, the cubes on control chart (c) place the SHORTER dimension cubes back onto the lid of the box. Feel that they are all the same height.
 Now place the TALLER cubes, on control chart (b) back onto the layer of cubes that are already on the lid of the box. Feel that they are all the same height with the flat of your hand.
 Now place the TALLEST cubes, on control chart (c) back onto the layer of cubes that are already on the lid of the box. Feel that they are all the same height with the flat of your hand.
 Beginning with the red cube from the top layer of cubes, replace them into the box wrapping the other cubes around the red cube. Place the blue cube in last. Feel with your flat hand that they are all the same height. Do the same for the second layer of cubes and for the third layer of cubes.
 Once the cubes are all back, fold up the sides of the box and draw attention to the fact that the pattern of the cubes inside the box resembles the pattern on the lid.
 Invite the child to have a turn.
EXTENSION 1
The child can build the Trinomial cube in exactly the same way but outside the box without the control charts.
EXTENSION 2
One day, after the cube is built outside the box, show the child that all the cube’s faces have the same pattern on them. Turn the cube around to show the child that the back faces are the same too. Place both hands around the cube and lift it, to show the child that the bottom also has the same pattern on it.
Show the child that the 12 inside faces have the same pattern. You will be able to do this by splitting the cube three ways, horizontally, vertically, and back to front. This will expose each face with each split.
EXTENSION 3
Show the child how you can match all the faces of the cubes together. Build a horizontal line on the mat from left to right, matching all the same sized blue faces.
Do the same with the red, black and yellow faces
Invite the child to have a turn.
EXTENSION 4
The child can independently build the three separate layers of the Trinomial Cube and put them together to make the complete cube, although the child should put them together piece by piece, rather than trying to lift each layer in its entirety.
CONTROL OF ERROR
The control charts
The child feels that all the blocks have the same dimension.
The colours of the cubes.
AGE
4 years approx.
MATERIALS
The binomial cube is a wooden box with a cover and two adjacent hinged sides, containing 8 wooden blocks that fit together to form a cube with the same pattern on each side and in the middle. The cube has a visual representation of the algebraic formula (a+b) (a+b) (a+b) or (a+b) 3
Control charts
DIRECT AIM
To help develop the child’s visual perception of threedimensional patterns.
INDIRECT AIM
To prepare the child for later work in Maths, especially algebra.
To aid the child’s fine motor.
Eye hand coordination.
Concentration.
To prepare the child for writing.
PRESENTATION
 Individual exercise done at a table on a work mat.
 Show the child how to carry the box and how to open and remove the box’s lid. Show the child how to lower the two adjacent hinged sides gently towards yourself. Show the child how to place the lid into the angle made by the opened sides, with the red square in the corner next to the box.
 Place the control charts beside and slightly in front of the box.
 Remove the top layer of blocks and place them onto the lid, starting with the cube nearest the open side. Then remove the one to the left of that then the one to the right of that. Place them on the appropriate colour of the control lid. Feel that they are all the same height by placing your hand gently onto the layer of cubes.
 Place the next layer of cubes directly on top of the previous layer.
 Now, remove the top layer of cubes and place it on the furthest (a) control charts that you have placed in front of the cube. Place your flat hand on the cubes again to make sure that they are all the same height.
 Repeat this removal for the next layer placing them on the control chart closer to you (b) again feeling that they are all the same height.
 Beginning with the red cube, that is, the cubes on control chart (b) place the SHORTER dimension cubes back onto the lid of the box. Feel that they are all the same height.
 Now place the TALLER cubes, on control chart (a) back onto the layer of cubes that are already on the lid of the box.
 Beginning with the red cube from the top layer of cubes, replace them into the box wrapping the other cubes around the red cube. Place the blue cube in last. Feel with your flat hand that they are all the same height. Do the same for the second layer of cubes.
 Once the cubes are all back, fold up the sides of the box and draw attention to the fact that the pattern of the cubes inside the box resembles the pattern on the lid.
 Invite the child to have a turn.
EXTENSION 1
The child can build the Binomial cube in exactly the same way but outside the box without the control 2harts.
EXTENSION 2
 One day, after the cube is built outside the box, show the child that all the cube’s faces have the same pattern on them. Turn the cube around to show the child that the back faces are the same too. Place both hands around the cube and lift it, to show the child that the bottom also has the same pattern on it.
 Show the child that the 6 inside faces have the same pattern. You will be able to do this by splitting the cube three ways, horizontally, vertically, and back to front. This will expose each face with each split.
CONTROL OF ERROR
The control charts
The child feels that all the blocks have the same dimension.
The colours of the cubes.
AGE
3 years approx.
MATERIALS
3 sets of 3 identical wooden tablets. Each set of tablets is made from a different kind of wood, so that the tablets in one set weigh about 9 grams, the next set weighs about 18 grams and the last set weighs about 27 grams. All the tablets are exactly the same size and shape.
DIRECT AIM
To help awaken and refine the child’s baric sense.
INDIRECT AIM
To aid the child’s fine motor by cultivating a lightness of touch.
To prepare the child for writing.
Concentration
Discrimination and judgement.
PRESENTATION 1
CONTROL OF ERROR
The tablets from the different categories look slightly different as the woods look different.
AGE
2.5 years approx.
MATERIALS
Each touch fabric is about 10cm by 10 cm. There are 6 identical pairs of different fabrics.
Some fabrics may include: linen velvet, tweed, ribbed corduroy, cotton flannel.
DIRECT AIM
To help awaken and refine the child’s tactile sense.
INDIRECT AIM
To aid the child’s fine motor by cultivating a lightness of touch.
To prepare the child for writing.
Concentration
Discrimination and judgement
PRESENTATION 1
Individual exercise done at a table.
 The child should wash his fingers or sensitise his fingers first.
 Place the Touch Fabrics from one set on the table feeling each one as you take them out of the box.
 Feel the fabrics between your fingers and thumb, rubbing them gently together as you do so.
 Make a pile of the 6 different cloths on the left hand side of the mat.
 On the right hand side of the mat, place the remaining cloths in a random arrangement.
 With your eyes averted or closed, select one cloth from the lefthand pile and bring it to the centre of the mat.
 Keep feeling the cloths on the right hand side until you find the one that matches the cloth from the lefthand side.
 Show great satisfaction when the correct piece of fabric has been located. Say, “these fabrics feel the same”.
 Isolate the matched pair at the centre of the far edge of the mat. Repeat the matching process.
 Once the matching process has been completed, show the child how to feel all the pairs again to verify the match.
 Separate the cloths into their piles again and invite the child to have a turn.
PRESENTATION 2
The child repeats the exercise but wears a blindfold.
PRESENTATION 3
If the child is interested, give a three period lesson on the various cloths in the fabric box.
Use only three fabrics at a time.
CONTROL OF ERROR
Each has a different look, colour, and texture.
MATERIALS
Touch Board 1 – there are two sections, one rough and one smooth
Touch Board 2 – there are 5 strips of the same texture sandpaper alternating along the length of the board with 4 smooth varnished areas.
Touch Board 3 – there are 4 different textures, from slightly rough sandpaper to very rough sandpaper.
DIRECT AIM
To help awaken the child’s tactile perceptual skills.
INDIRECT AIM
To aid the child’s fine motor by cultivating a lightness of touch.
To prepare the child for writing.
AGE
2.5 years approx.
PRESENTATION
Individual exercise done at a table.
 The child should wash his fingers or sensitise his fingers first.
 Present touch board 1 first.
 Position the board so that the smooth side is on the lefthand side.
 With eyes averted, lightly brush the tips of the fingers of one hand over the smooth surface, pulling your hand towards yourself from far to near. Say “smooth”.
 Do the same with the “Rough” section. Invite the child to feel the different textures.
 Do a three period lesson with the words: smooth and rough.
 Present Touch Board 2 next.
 Stroke the board in the same way alternatively saying “ rough, smooth, rough, smooth”
 Let the child feel this board.
 Again, do a three period lesson with rough and smooth.
 Present Touch Board 3 next.
 The smoothest sandpaper strip is on the lefthand side with the roughest on the right hand side. Brush your fingertips over the first strip from top to bottom and say “rough”.
 As you feel each strip of sandpaper so you will say “rougher, rougher, roughest”
 Use a three period lessonto reinforce the comparative and superlatives remembering to always follow the same sequence.
CONTROL OF ERROR
If his fingers go off the sandpaper, he will feel the contrast.
AGE
4 years onwards
MATERIALS
Set 1
A series of bells representing the whole tones and semi tones of one octave from middle c. the bells are on black and white bases and correspond to the black and white notes on a piano.
Set 2
A second series of bells identical in sound to the above set but all on plain wooden bases and a wooden board marked into black and white spaces which are wide enough to hold one bell.
A wooden striker
A damper
DIRECT AIM
To develop the child’s discrimination of pitch.
INDIRECT AIM
To develop the child’s perception of tones
To prepare the child for music.
PRESENTATION
High and low
 High and low are taught by means of the three period lesson. Select three bells from the diatonic scale e.g. Middle C and A – and bring them to the front of the mat isolating them from the others. Strike middle C, listen. Sing “this is low” then mute the bell. Strike A and listen. Sing “this is high” then mute the bell. Repeat.
 In the second period sing the “strike high” and “strike low” notes and encourage the child to answer by singing on the notes.
 In the third period, ask, “what is this”?
Comparitives and superlatives
 Select middle c and the three highest notes a, b, and c – and bring them down to the front of the stand to isolate them from the others.
 Strike middle c, sing “this is low”, and mute it.
 Strike a and sing “this is “high” and mute it.
 Strike b and sing “this is higher” and mute the bell.
 Strike c, sing “this is the highest”, and mute the bell.
 Continue in the usual manner with the second and third period.
Names and notes of the diatonic scale
 Play the diatonic scale and tell the child that the notes have names.
 Sing the names as you strike the bells again from middle c, to c.
 Then select three bells e.g. Middle c, e and b.
 Bring them down to the front of the stand to isolate them from the others.
 Strike middle c, listen and sing in tune “ this is c”
 Invite the child to do the same.
 Then do likewise with e and b giving the child a turn.
 Continue as for the 3 period lesson.
 Teach all the notes in this way.
 Before each lesson, review the ones already learnt.
Names of sharps and flats
 Play up and down the chromatic scale and sing la, la ,la,la.
 Decide on a bell e.g. Middle c and d.
 Strike middle c and sing in tune la – mute it.
 Strike c # and sing in tune la – mute it.
 Explain to the child that the notes are very similar with only a semitone difference.
 Ask him to listen carefully and proceed to sing them again.
 Play c # (sharp) again and tell the child that this is called c sharp. It is just higher than c.
 Invite the child to have a turn. Strike d and sing “la”…mute it.
 Explain to the child that this note can also be called d flat.
 Ask to child to listen carefully, strike, and sing d and b flat.
 Continue as for a normal three period lesson. The other sharps and flats are similarly introduced.
CONTROL OF ERROR
The child realises when working with the chromatic scale that when a black bell is to the right of a white bell it is called a sharp relative to the white bell. When a black bell is to the left of a white bell it is called a flat relative to that bell – although the child will be working with the brown bells in front of the bells mentioned. It is essential that the control set of Bells are always in the correct sequence.
AGE
3.5 years onwards
MATERIALS
Set 1
A series of bells representing the whole tones and semi tones of one octave from middle c. the bells are on black and white bases and correspond to the black and white notes on a piano.
Set 2
A second series of bells identical in sound to the above set but all on plain wooden bases and a wooden board marked into black and white spaces which are wide enough to hold one bell.
A wooden striker
A damper
DIRECT AIM
To develop the child’s discrimination of pitch.
INDIRECT AIM
To develop the child’s perception of tones
To prepare the child for music.
Introductory exercise
Demonstrate how to play the bells up and down the scale. The child can then select a single bell and isolates it from the others at the front of the stand or takes it to the table. He then strikes and mutes the bell alternately, or he strikes the bell and allows the note to die away. The child is encouraged to sing the note.
PRESENTATION 1
 Name the bells and show the child how to carry them. The bell should be carried in an upright position only, with one hand gripping the stem and the other hand beneath the base.
 Tell the child that we are going to pair the diatonic scale.
 Set 1 is placed on the wooden board in the correct order. The Montessori Directress shows the child how to strike the bells with the hammer provided.
 Select three white and three corresponding brown bells on the board.
 The selected three brown bells should contrast in tone (low C, F and B for e.g.) Place them together, in a mixed up order, in the centre of the space on the table in front of the board.
 Take up the striker and strike one of the white bells (diatonic scale) and listen carefully to the sound. Then strike one of the brown bells and if it does not match move it to the far right hand side of the table.
 Strike the white bell gain, and try a second brown bell. Repeat until you find a match. Invite the child to strike each bell of the matched pair.
PRESENTATION 2
The child must distinguish differences and grade the bells. Using set 2, the bells are arranged randomly on the table from left to right. The child strikes one bell at a time. When the lowest bell is heard, he places it to the left of the mat and keeps on listening for the next highest bell. The highest bell will then be on the right hand side of the mat.
PRESENTATION 3
Another day, repeat the presentation with three new pairs of contrasting bells.As you introduce three new bells each day, reuse the pair that you used before. ( 1 known and 2 unknown)
PRESENTATION 4
Another day, do the presentation with all eight brown bells mixed up on the front edge of the table.
PRESENTATION 5
Give a three period lesson on the comparatives and superlatives of “high” and “low” or “highest” and “lowest” and so on.
CONTROL OF ERROR
For ex. 2, the child can check to see if he has graded the bells correctly by comparing the order of the bells of set 1. These are set out on the board in the correct order.
Montessori Geometric Solids PresentationMATERIALS: Geometric Solids – cube, ellipsoid, ovoid, two pyramids, one square based and one triangular based, cone, rectangular prism, triangular prism, cylinder and a set of bases for the solids. Plane surfaces – cube, rectangular prism, triangular prism, pyramid Curved surface – sphere, ovoid, ellipsoid Flat and curved surfaces – cone, cylinder OBJECTIVES: To make the child familiar with, and to teach him the appropriate mathematical names for the various geometric solids. To make the child aware of the geometric solids that are found in the every day environment AGE: 3 plus years. PRESENTATION 1: This is an individual exercise done at the table. This is a sensorial exploration of the shapes. Lay a mat on the table and place the solids on it. Select three solids, preferably one from each family. That is, one curved solid, one plane solid and one plane/curved solid. Pick up the solid, feel it and pass it on to the child to feel. Experiment with the solids. See which ones roll and which ones do not roll. Place the curved solid in the base, indirectly drawing the child’s attention as to which are curved and which are angular. PRESENTATION 2: Take out all the bases and place them on the mat. Take out all the solids and place them correctly on their bases. When all are correctly placed, select a square base and see how many solids will fit correctly on it. Try placing a curved solid on it so that the child will see the difference.
PRESENTATION 3: The names of the different solids are introduced by the Three Period Lesson. The child should already know a cube from working with the Pink Tower, a prism from working with the Broad Stair, and a cylinder from the Knobless Cylinders. To begin with start with a shape they can already name.
Exercise 1: The child is asked to sort the solids. E.g., those with straight sides (plane) or those with curved sides or those containing both. . Exercise 2: The child is asked to experiment with the solids and place them together to try to form other solids. This should be followed by a discussion. Exercise 3: Using the set of bases, the child is asked to place each on its solid base, using the appropriate language. The child is helped to discover which solids have the same bases. The language used is important so that the child realises the importance of the number of straight edges and curves. Exercise 4: Place all the solids in a basket and cover the basket with a cloth. Ask one child to find a cone, another to find a sphere, another a cube etc. Exercise 5: Invite the child to feel one of the solids in the covered basket and to name the solid before he withdraws it from the basket. NOTE: It is important that the Montessori Directress should help make the children aware of geometric shapes found in the every day environment. This can be done informally or as a class project where children are asked to collect such items as empty cardboard boxes, tins etc. that correspond in shape to the solids.

AGE
3 years approx.
MATERIALS
Two wooden boxes each containing 6 cylinders, which are filled with different objects so that when shaken they have a different sound. One box has a blue lid and blue topped cylinders. The red topped box has red topped cylinders.
DIRECT AIM
To help awaken and refine the child’s auditory sense.
INDIRECT AIM
To aid the child’s auditory memory.
To aid the child’s auditory perception.
To give the child experience in matching.
Concentration
Discrimination and judgement
PRESENTATION
 Individual exercise done at a table. Bring both the boxes to the table. Remove the lid from the red set and place it underneath the box.
 Show the child how to hold the cylinder by its middle between the thumb and forefinger of one hand. Hold the cylinder by the right ear and give it two sharp shakes downward, listening intently to the sound it makes. Then hold it a few centimeters from the other ear and listen to it in the same way fixing the sound into your memory.
 Replace the cylinder on the mat. Listen to all the cylinders in this way and invite the child to listen.
 Arrange these red cylinders randomly in a vertical line on the lefthand side of the mat. Now place the blue lid under its box, remove the blue cylinders and place them in a group on the right hand side. Tell the child that the blue and red cylinders sound exactly the same. Proceed to match the cylinders.
 Take one of the red cylinders and bring it to the front of the mat. Listen to the cylinder as before. Take a blue cylinder from the line and listen. If the two cylinders do not match return the blue cylinder to the box to isolate it. Listen to the next blue cylinder until a match is found. If a match is found say “these two sound the same” and place the matched pair in the centre of the far edge of the mat. Allow the child to listen to the match.
 When all 6 pairs have been matched, shake each matched pair in turn, one cylinder at a time, from far to near, and invite the child to do the same.
 Separate the 6 pairs as before and offer the child a turn.
PRESENTATION 2
 Take out all the cylinders from one of the sets and tell the child that you are going to grade the cylinders.
 Arrange the red cylinders in a random row from left to right, at the centre of the mat. Shake each cylinder in the row, as many times as is needed to determine which is the loudest. If, necessary keep repeating and compare, two or three that are close in sound. Remove the loudest cylinder from the row and place it in front of the empty red box near the lefthand side of the mat.
 Of the remaining cylinders again determine which is the loudest and place the next loudest cylinder just in front of the first loudest along the left hand edge of the mat.
 Continue until all 6 cylinders have been graded.
 Either, let the child listen to the graded set or else take out the blue set and let the child grade these in the same way.
 When this done the child can check his graded set against your set by shaking each corresponding pair in turn.
 If the child shows great difficulty grading, on another day give the same presentation but take out only three cylinders from each colour.
PRESENTATION 3
Give a three period lesson on the terms: loud and soft.
Give a three period lesson on the comparatives and superlatives of loud and soft such as loud, louder, loudest and the same with the soft, louder, loudest set or soft and softer.
Extension / game
Place the cylinders from one box on a tablemat and those from the other box on a table mat some considerable distance away. At the first mat, isolate one cylinder for the child to listen to and ask the child to find the matching cylinder on the distant mat and to bring it back to verify the match.
CONTROL OF ERROR
Each pair of cylinders sounds the same.
Each pair of cylinders have a matching symbol underneath them.
MATERIALS
Box 5 is a triangular box which contains 8 blue triangles:
2 small equilateral triangles.
1 small obtuse angle scalene triangle.
2 large right angle isosceles triangles.
1 small right angle scalene triangle.
2 medium right angle scalene triangles.
DIRECT AIM
To give the child the opportunity to experiment with various geometric shapes.
INDIRECT AIM
To show that all plane, flat, rectilinear figures are composed of triangles.
To indirectly prepare the child for later work in Maths and Geometry.
AGE
4 to 4.5 years approx.
PRESENTATION 1
AGE
4 to 4.5 years approx.
MATERIALS
Box 4 is a hexagonal box which contains the following 18 triangles:
1 yellow equilateral triangle with no black lines.
3 green equilateral triangles, two with the black lines on one side and one with black lines on two sides.
2 red equilateral triangles with the black line on one side.
6 red obtuse angle isosceles triangles with the black line opposite the obtuse angle
6 grey equilateral triangles with the black lines on two sides.
DIRECT AIM
To give the child the opportunity to experiment with various geometric shapes.
INDIRECT AIM
To discover, at a sensorial level, the various ways these shapes can be divided and combined to form other shapes.
For later work in Maths and Geometry.
PRESENTATION 1
CONTROL OF ERROR
The black lines.
Visual
AGE
4 o 4.5 years approx.
MATERIALS
Box 3 is a hexagonal box which contains the following 11 triangles:
3 yellow obtuse angle isosceles triangles with black lines opposite the obtuse angle on the longer side.
3 yellow obtuse angle isosceles triangles with the black line on both sides containing the obtuse angle.
2 grey obtuse angle isosceles triangles with the black line on one of the sides containing the obtuse angle.
2 red obtuse angle isosceles triangles with the black line opposite the obtuse angle
1 large yellow equilateral triangle with the black lines on all the sides
DIRECT AIM
To give the child the opportunity to experiment with various geometric shapes.
INDIRECT AIM
To discover, at a sensorial level, the various ways these shapes can be divided and combined to form other shapes.
For later work in Maths and Geometry.
PRESENTATION 1
CONTROL OF ERROR
The black lines.
Visual
AGE
4 to 4.5 years approx.
MATERIALS
Box 2 is a rectangular box which contains the following 14 triangles:
2 yellow right angle triangles with black lines on the shorter side containing the right angle.
2 green right angle scalene triangles with a black line on the longer side containing the right angle.
2 yellow right angle isosceles triangles with the black line on one of the sides containing the right angle.
2 yellow equilateral triangles with the black line on one side.
2 grey right angle scalene triangles with the black line opposite the right angle,
2 green right angle isosceles triangles with the black line opposite the right angle.
1 red right angle scalene triangle with the black line on the longer side containing the right angle.
1 red obtuse angle scalene triangles with the black line opposite the obtuse angle.
DIRECT AIM
To give the child the opportunity to experiment with various geometric shapes.
INDIRECT AIM
To discover, at a sensorial level, the various ways these shapes can be divided and combined to form other shapes.
For later work in Maths and Geometry.
PRESENTATION 1
CONTROL OF ERROR
The black lines.
Visual
AGE
4 to 4.5 years approx.
MATERIALS
Box 1 is a triangular box which contains the following 10 triangles:
4 red equilateral triangles with a black line on one of the 3 sides while the 4^{th} triangle has black lines on all 3 sides.
3 yellow obtuse angle isosceles triangles with a black line on both sides of the obtuse triangles.
2 green right angle scalene triangles with black lines on the longer side of the right angle.
1 large grey equilateral triangles with no black lines.
DIRECT AIM
To give the child the opportunity to experiment with various geometric shapes.
INDIRECT AIM
To discover, at a sensorial level, the various ways these shapes can be divided and combined to form other shapes.
For later work in Maths and Geometry.
PRESENTATION 1
Individual exercise done at a table or on a floor mat.
 Remove the triangles from the box, one at a time. Bring the 2 green triangles closer together and feel along each of the triangle’s black lines with the middle and index fingers. Fit the two triangles together by sliding them together on the mat so that their black lines match together.
 Continue in this way with the yellow, then the red triangles.
 Check that the triangles are correct by placing the grey triangle on top of each new triangle and verifying the match.
 Show the child how to return the triangles back in the box in order: red, yellow, green, and grey.
 Give a three period lesson on the apex, base, bisector, median, align
PRESENTATION 2
CONTROL OF ERROR
The black line and the large grey triangle.
Visual
AREA
Practical Life
AGE
3 to 3.5 years
MATERIALS
First square – stitches marking stitched line
Second square – stitches marking diagonal
Third square – stitches marking two stitched
Four square – stitches marking to diagonals
DIRECT AIM
Fold cloth along the stitches
INDIRECT AIM
Concentration
Preparation for geometry
Fine motor movements
PRESENTATION
CONTROL OF ERROR
Stitches show if cloth is not folded correctly
EXTENSIONS
Folding table napkins, pillow cases, dish towels
VARIATIONS
Teaching vocabulary like meridian, diagonal, parallel
Folding different types of napkins
Doing Origami
Folding Fancy Napkins
AREA:
Practical Life
AGE:
3.5 years
MATERIALS
Soap pad
Tweezer
Small beads in a container
DIRECT AIM
Tweezing beads from container onto suckers of a soap pad.
INDIRECT AIM
Eye hand coordination
Develop pincer grip
Patience and concentration
Dexterity
Strengthen fingers
PRESENTATION
 Invite the child to begin Work Cycle.
 The child places the tray on the mat in front of the adult.
 The adult pushes the tray to the top edge of the mat.
 Remove the container and place on the left of the mat, the soap pad on the right and the tweezers to the front of the mat.
 Grasp tweezers in a pincer grip with thumb on left grip and index finger on the right grip.
 Position tweezer over the bowl and tweeze one bead securing by applying gentle pressure on right and left grips.
 Move hand over to the first sucker on soap pad and lower tweezer. Place bead on sucker by gently releasing pressure on the grips.
Repeat procedure moving from left to right until the suckers on soap pad have been filled.  To return the beads to the container, tweeze the beads one at a time from each of the suckers into the container working from left to right.
 Replace the container on the left of the tray, the soap dish to the right and the tweezers in front.
 Bring tray to the centre of the mat.
 Invite the child to have a turn.
 End the work cycle.
CONTROL OF ERROR
Spilling beads
Picking up (with fingers) spilt beads
EXTENSIONS
Tweezing smaller articles such as rice
VARIATIONS
Tweezing different articles onto different surfaces/containers
AREA
Practical Life
Elementary Movements
AGE
3 – 4 years
MATERIALS
A glass bottle
A jug filled with (coloured) water
A cloth.
DIRECT AIM
To pour water through the funnel into the glass/bottle.
INDIRECT AIM
Fine motor skills
Eye hand coordination
Concentration
Develop strength in fingers
Develop pincer grip
Visual discrimination
Dexterity
Bilaterality
Crossing the midline
Estimation,
PRESENTATION
VARIATIONS
Pouring different things such as beans,rice,salt.
Using different sizes of funnels.
AREA
Practical Life
AGE
2 ½ to 3 years
MATERIALS
Two identical jugs
Water
A cloth
Tray and mat.
DIRECT AIM
Pouring water from the right hand jug into the lefthand jug then from left jug into right jug.
A cloth is to be used to wipe the lip of the jugs.
INDIRECT AIM
Concentration
Eye–hand coordination
Patience
Hand control
Eye convergence
PRESENTATION
 Invite the child to begin Work Cycle.
 The child places the tray on the mat in front of the adult.
 The adult pushes the tray to the top edge of the mat.
 Remove the jugs one by one from the tray to the mat with the dominant hand in fluid movements ensuring the full jug is on the right. The cloth is placed at the front of the jugs.
 Grasp the handle of the jug with the index and middle fingers of the right hand. The right thumb is placed on top of the handle.
 Stabilise the underside of the jug with index and middle fingers of the left hand.
 Gently tilt and pour.
 Wipe lip with cloth.
 Replace jug and cloth on mat, cloth in front.
 Repeat for other hand.
 Replace jugs one by one on the tray ensuring full jug is on the right.
 Place cloth to the back of jugs.
 Place tray on centre of mat.
 Invite the child to have a turn
 End the work cycle.
CONTROL OF ERROR
Spilling water.
EXTENSIONS
Pouring into smaller jugs.
VARIATIONS
Pouring coloured water
Pouring milk.
AGE
2 ½ to 3 years
MATERIALS
Two identical jugs, beans, tray and mat.
DIRECT AIM
Pouring beans from the right hand jug into the left hand jug then from left jug into right jug.
INDIRECT AIM
Concentration
Eye–hand coordination
Patience
Hand control
Eye convergence.
PRESENTATION
CONTROL OF ERROR
Noise of spilling of beans.
EXTENSIONS
 Use of smaller grains i.e. as rice.
 Pouring into smaller jugs, containers.
 Picking up (with fingers) spilt beans/rice.
VARIATIONS
Different types of beans, rice.
Montessori Botany Cabinet and 3 sets of corresponding CardsMATERIALS: Three sets of Leaf cards. Set 1 – Solid Outline Set 2 – Thick Outline Set 3 – Thin Outline OBJECTIVES: To make the child familiar with, and to teach him the appropriate leaf shape names. To lead the child towards abstraction. To refine the child’s reasoning powers. Preparation for reading and writing. Coordination of Movement. CONTROL OF ERROR: There is a card for each inset. AGE: 3 plus years. PRESENTATION 1: 1. This is an individual exercise done at the table or on the floor on a floor mat. 2. Bring the first Tray to the mat and place it in the centre of the mat. The child sits on your nondominant side. 3. Take the leaf cards from the Solid set and lay them out around the tray. 4. Lay a card out to the lefthand side of the tray, lay two cards out in front of the tray and lay the last card out on the right hand side of the tray. 5. Remove the insets slowly and gracefully by grasping the little white knob. Place them on their matching solid cards ensuring that the blue solid shape is totally covered. EXERCISE 1: The child works with the exercise as presented. EXERCISE 2: On another day, invite the child to work with the second drawer, and so on working with each drawer in succession. The child places the leaf inset on to each card in turn. EXERCISE 3: Later, the child repeats the exercise with: The broad outline cards The thin outline cards. EXERCISE 4: The child continues working until he can use all 3 drawers and all 3 sets of cards together at one time. Game 1: 1. Select a drawers of the cabinet and place it on a mat at one end of the room, ensuring that the children can see the shape. 2. Take the solid set of the cards, show a child the card and ask him to fetch the corresponding wooden inset. 3. When he brings it, let him fit it over the card. Show another card to another child and continue in this way until all the cards and insets have been matched. Game 2: 4. Select a drawer from the cabinet and place it on a mat at one end of the room, ensuring that the children can see the shape. 5. Take an inset this time, show a child the inset and ask him to fetch the corresponding card. 6. When he brings the card back, let him fit the inset and card together. 7. Show another inset to another child and continue in this way until all the cards and insets have been matched. Game 3: 1. Place two mats on the floor a good distance apart. 2. A variety of insets are placed on one mat and assorted cards are placed on the other mat. 3. Point to one inset and ask the child to bring the corresponding card. Specify whether it should be solid, a thick outline, or a thin outline. Game 4: 1. Spread all the cards from set 1 on the table. 2. Place set 2 on another table and place all the leaf drawers from the cabinet on a third table. 3. Mix the cards from set 3 and give a few to a group of children. 4. Ask them to find the corresponding insets and cards to those they have been given. 5. In doing so they have to remember the leaf shapes they have been given. Game 5: 1. Using two sets of leaf cards e.g. The solid and thick outline, share out one set of cards among the children who then place them on their tables face up. 2. Hold up one card from the other set and the child who has the corresponding card turns his card down. 3. The game continues until all the cards are used up. Game 6: 1. A more difficult variation of this game can be played by turning the card face down on the table. 2. Allow the children to have a thorough look at them. 3. Then when the Montessori Directress holds up the card from her set, the child remembers and recognises it as his card. Game 7: Stereognostic exercise 1. Place the leaf shapes and a few frames, into the stereognostic bag or blindfold the child. 2. Let the child feel the shapes and frames and replace the corresponding shape into the frame. 
Montessori Botany Cabinet Lesson PresentationMATERIALS: A wooden cabinet with 3 drawers containing wooden frames. The wooden insets are of basic leaf shapes. An orange stick. Each inset has a knob for handling. Drawer 1: Pairs – cordate, obcordate, obovate, ovate. Drawer 2: Contrasts – lanceolate, aciculate, spatulate, linear, hastate, saggitate. Drawer 3 : Contrasts – reniform, orbiculate, deltoid (triangular), elliptical OBJECTIVES: To make the child familiar with, and to teach him the appropriate leaf shape names. To develop the child’s visual perception To teach the child new language. CONTROL OF ERROR: There is a socket for each inset in the tray in the cabinet. There is a card for each inset. AGE: 3 plus years. PRESENTATION 1: 1. This is an individual exercise done at the table. 2. Bring the 1st Tray to the table and sit on the right hand side. The child sits on your nondominant side. 3. Choose 3 contrasting shapes. 4. Remove the insets slowly and gracefully by grasping the little white knob. 5. Place each leaf inset on the plain wooden spaces opposite. 6. With the fleshy tips of your fingers feel the entire edge of the inset in one continuous movement, starting at the near bottom corner and moving anti clockwise. 7. Gently place the inset down and with the same fingers as before, feel the entire inside edge of the space in that inset’s frame, in one continuous movement. Again, start at the far lefthand corner and move anticlockwise. 8. Pick up the inset and by your facial expression show that you have affirmed the shape in that they both feel the same. 9. In one smooth, continuous movement, replace the inset into its frame. 10. Repeat this process for the other 2 leaf shapes in the Tray. 11. If the leaf shape is intricate, use an orange stick to trace around the shape. EXERCISE 1: The child works with the exercise as presented. EXERCISE 2: On another day, invite the child to work with the second drawer, and so on working with each drawer in succession. EXERCISE 3: The child unrolls a floor mat and works with 2 drawers at a time. EXERCISE 4: The child unrolls a floor mat and works with 3 drawers at a time. 
Montessori Geometric Cabinet and 3 sets of corresponding CardsMATERIALS: Three sets of Geometric cards. Set 1 – Solid Outline Set 2 – Thick Outline Set 3 – Thin Outline OBJECTIVES: To make the child familiar with, and to teach him the appropriate geometric names for the various geometric shapes. To make the child aware of the geometric shapes that are found in the every day environment. Preparation for Geometry. Preparation for reading and writing. Coordination of Movement. CONTROL OF ERROR: There is a card for each inset. AGE: 3 plus years. PRESENTATION 1: This is an individual exercise done at the table or on the floor on a floor mat. Bring the Circle Tray to the mat and place it in the centre of the mat. The child sits on your nondominant side. Take the circle cards from the Solid set and lay them out around the tray. Lay two cards out to the lefthand side of the tray, lay two cards out in front of the tray and lay two cards out on the right hand side of the tray. Remove the insets slowly and gracefully by grasping the little white knob. Place them on their matching solid cards ensuring that the blue solid shape is totally covered. EXERCISE 1: The child works with the exercise as presented. EXERCISE 2: On another day, invite the child to work with the second drawer, and so on working with each drawer in succession. The child places the inset on to each card in turn. EXERCISE 3: Later, the child repeats the exercise with: The broad outline cards The thin outline cards. Game 1: Place all the drawers of the cabinet at one end of the room, ensuring that the children can see the shape. Take one set of the cards, show a child the card and ask him to fetch the corresponding wooden inset. When he brings it, let him fit it over the card. Show another card to another child and continue in this way until all the cards and insets have been matched. Game 2: Scatter two or three sets of cards on the mat from the solid set or from the broad /thin outline. Take one card away and see whether the child can identify which one you took away. Game 3: Place two mats on the floor a good distance apart. A variety of insets are placed on one mat and assorted cards are placed on the other mat. Point to one inset and ask the child to bring the corresponding card. Specify whether it should be solid, a thick outline, or a thin outline. Game 4: Spread all the cards from set 1 on the table. Place set 2 on another table and place all the drawers from the cabinet on a third table. Mix the cards from set 3 and give a few to a group of children. Ask them to find the corresponding insets and cards to those they have been given. In doing so they have to remember the figures they have been given. Game 5: Using two sets of geometric cards e.g. The solid and thick outline, share out one set of cards among the children who then place them on their tables face up. Hold up one card from the other set and the child who has the corresponding card turns his card down. The game continues until all the cards are used up. Game 6: A more difficult variation of this game can be played by turning the cards face down on the table after the children have thoroughly looked at them. Then when the Montessori Directress holds up the card from her set, the child remembers and recognises it as his card. NOTE The children must be familiar with the cards and cabinet before playing these games. 
Montessori Geometric Tray Lesson PresentationMATERIALS: 1. Presentation tray, 3 insets. A square, a circle, an equilateral triangle. 2. Geometric Cabinet. Drawer 1: 6 circles Drawer 2: 6 rectangles Drawer 3: 6 triangles Drawer 4: 6 polygons Drawer 5: 4 curved figures Drawer 6: 4/6 quadrilaterals OBJECTIVES: To make the child familiar with, and to teach him the appropriate geometric names for the various geometric shapes. To make the child aware of the geometric shapes that are found in the every day environment. Preparation for Geometry. Preparation for reading and writing. Coordination of Movement. CONTROL OF ERROR: There is a socket for each inset in the tray in the cabinet. There is a card for each inset. AGE: 3 plus years. PRESENTATION 1: This is an individual exercise done at the table. Bring the Presentation Tray to the table and sit on the right hand side. The child sits on your nondominant side. Remove the insets slowly and gracefully by grasping the little white knob. Place them on the plain wooden spaces opposite, so that there appears to be 2 squares, 2 circles and 2 triangles. With the fleshy tips of your fingers feel the entire edge of the inset in one continuous movement, starting at the near bottom corner and moving anti clockwise. Gently place the inset down and with the same fingers as before, feel the entire inside edge of the space in that inset’s frame, in one continuous movement. Again, start at the far lefthand corner and move anticlockwise. Pick up the inset and by your facial expression show that you have affirmed the shape in that they both feel the same. In one smooth, continuous movement, replace the inset into its frame. Repeat this process for the other 2 shapes in the Presentation Tray. EXERCISE 1: The child works with the exercise as presented. EXERCISE 2: Show the child how to remove, carry and replace drawers in the Geometric Cabinet. Begin with the circle drawer. Invite the child to work with the top drawer treating it just like the Presentation Tray. Place the insets in front of the tray. With the fleshy tips of your fingers feel the entire edge of the inset in one continuous movement, starting at the near bottom corner and moving anticlockwise. Gently place the inset down and with the same fingers as before, feel the entire inside edge of the space in that inset’s frame, in one continuous movement. Again, start at the far lefthand corner and move anticlockwise. Pick up the inset and by your facial expression show that you have affirmed the shape in that they both feel the same. In one smooth, continuous movement, replace the inset into its frame. On another day, invite the child to work with the second drawer, and so on working with each drawer in succession. Exercise 1: The child works through all the drawers of the cabinet one by one. 